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N O T E S Notes to Introduction 1.Vladimir Nabokov, The Stories of Vladimir Nabokov (New York: Vintage, 1997), 160. 2. Ibid., 157. 3. Lucien Dällenbach, The Mirror in the Text, trans. Jeremy Whitely with Emma Hughes (Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1989), 55. 4. Nabokov, Stories, 159. 5. Stendhal, Scarlet and Black, trans. Margaret R. B. Shaw (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1953), 93. On the mirror as a figure for mimesis, see M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition (London: Oxford University Press, 1971), 30–35. 6. A novel by Vladimir Sorokin, a pastiche of literary clichés, employs an appropriately banal variant: a woman glimpses her reflection and sees her mother in her own aged body.“In the entryway hung a wide old mirror. . . .I see a mass of old women,exhausted faces,everyone shoving,and I can’t find myself no matter how I try, simply can’t! And then I saw my mother; she was looking at me out of that mirror. I moved my hand across my face—so did she. I shook my hair—so did she.” Vladimir Sorokin, Sobranie sochinenii (Moscow:Ad Marginem, 2002), 2:796.All translations mine unless otherwise noted. 7. I borrow this shorthand definition of metaphor from Peter Brooks’s analysis of plot construction . Peter Brooks, Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative (Oxford, UK: Clarendon , 1984), 91. 8. Andrei Bely, Selected Essays, ed. and trans. Steven Cassedy (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), 108; Kritika, estetika, teoriia simvolizma, 2 vols. (Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1994), 1:241. Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957), 124. 9. Versions of this aesthetic stance are of great antiquity. In The Republic, Socrates maintains that the “faculty in man to which imitation is addressed” is the “weakness of the human mind” manifested in refraction, Gestalt switches, and other instances in which perception deviates from reality— that is, art is defined by how it appears to depart from the truth. Plato, The Dialogues of Plato, trans. B. Jowett (New York: Random House, 1937), 1:860. 10.Aleksandr Bogdanov, Essays in Tektology, trans. George Gorelik (Seaside, CA: Intersystems Publications, 1980), 100. Claude Lévi-­ Strauss arrives at a similar formula:“every society first desires to reproduce itself; it must thus possess a rule to assign children the same status in the social structure as that of their parents.” The View from Afar, trans. Joachim Neugroschel and Phoebe Hoss (New York: Basic Books, 1985), 57. 11. For example, holding parents responsible for the actions of minor children, devolving power of attorney onto an incapacitated person’s nearest relative, or distributing wealth over time largely through the mechanism of children acceding to the possessions of their parents. 12. Claude Lévi-­ Strauss, Structural Anthropology, trans. Claire Jacobson and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf (New York: Basic Books, 1963), 83. 13. These efforts to decipher the cultural superstructure as determined by the material base have been influentially synthesized with Lévi-­ Strauss’s structuralism in Fredric Jameson’s The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981), 77–80. 146  N otes to I ntroduction 14. Nabokov, Stories, 157. 15. Ibid., 157–58. 16. See, e.g., Sianne Ngai, Ugly Feelings (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2005), 2. 17. Quoted in Friedrich Engels, The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State in Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan (New York: International, 1972), 122. 18. Ibid., 121. In the last years of his life Marx planned a book on kinship that would build on the anthropological work of Lewis Henry Morgan, and left voluminous notes toward the project. See Thomas R. Trautmann, Lewis Henry Morgan and the Invention of Kinship (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 250–55. 19. Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, trans. Aylmer Maude, rev. George Gibian (New York: Norton, 1995), 74; Polnoe sobranie sochinenii v chetyrnadtsati tomakh (Moscow, Khudozhestvennaia literatura, 1928), 18:87. The philanderer Stepan Oblonsky actually reads the telegram announcing Anna’s arrival while being shaved before a mirror by his valet and confidante (“from their looks, as they met in the glass, it was evident that they understood each other”), thereby establishing a link between mirrors, adultery, and a duplicitous world of socially conventional appearances in the novel’s very first pages. Ibid., 4; 18:6. 20. Ibid., 319; 18:368. 21. Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (San...


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