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From: Creole Clay

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305 Notes Chapter 1. Introduction: Old Pots Make Good Soup 1. Mann, 1493, 511. 2. The term “coarse earthenware” is used by archaeologists to refer to unglazed pottery. “Raw” or “rough” as descriptors indicate inferior craftsmanship, but it is the term “primitive ” that is likely the most problematic in its comparative stance to the concept of “civilized .” For a fascinating exploration of this relationship, see Sally Price’s book Primitive Art in Civilized Places. 3. Rouse, Tainos, chapter 3 (“The Peopling of the West Indies) and chapter 4 (“The First Repeopling”). Irving Rouse is the default resource on the pre-Columbian peoples of the Caribbean, and his discussion of the distinctions between population movement, colonization , and immigration on page 73 was particularly helpful. 4. The name “Carib” as attached to indigenous peoples of the region has become a contested term in many settings; the former Caribs of Dominica have chosen to reclaim their ancestral name “Kalinago,” although “Carib” is still used in Trinidad and Guyana. 5. Casas, Short Account, 26. The full text of his brief comments on Puerto Rico and Jamaica are worth repeating in full: “In 1509, the Spanish, with the same purpose in mind as they had when they landed on Hispaniola, found their way to the two verdant islands of Puerto Rico and Jamaica, both of them lands flowing with milk and honey. Here they perpetrated the same outrages and committed the same crimes as before, devising yet further refinements of cruelty, murdering the native people, burning and roasting them alive, throwing them to wild dogs and then oppressing, tormenting and plaguing them with toil down the mines and elsewhere, and so once again killing off these poor innocents to such effect that where the native population of the two islands was certainly over six hundred thousand (and I personally reckon it at more than a million) fewer than two hundred survive on each of the two islands, all the others having perished without ever learning the truths of the Christian religion and without the benefit of the Sacraments” (Casas, Short Account, 26). 6. See the “Transatlantic Slave Trade Database.” The total number of African slaves transported to the New World has long been a source of debate. This database has now produced definitive statistics through the documentation of individual slave ship voyages, and sets the total number of slaves embarked from African ports at 12,521,337. 7. Brereton and Yelvington, Colonial Caribbean in Transition, 6. 8. Heath, “Yabbas, Monkeys, Jugs and Jars,” 201, 206, 211–13. 9. It is often said that Brooklyn (or Toronto, or London) is the largest Caribbean city, and that there are more island-born residents living outside the Caribbean than in it. Financial remittances sent home by family members working or living abroad have historically been a substantial source of income in the region. Chapter 2. Saint Lucia: Tout Moun Ki Ka Fè Kannawi 1. Sturge and Harvey, West Indies in 1837, 125–26. 2. Harmsen, Ellis, and Devaux, History of St Lucia, 92–93. 3. Ibid., 31. 4. Ibid., 92. 5. Ibid., 58. 6. When I mentioned this fact to the potters in Choiseul they were highly indignant, and in truth the parish does seem far larger, and certainly more important, than its geographical size implies. 7. Handler, “Daily Journal for Caribbean Trip,” 25–35; used by permission of the author. The number one hundred was a very rough approximation by a local resident, and Handler commented, “I would not place great weight on this estimate one way or the other.” 8. Vincentelli, Women Potters, 13–14, 211–12. This book documents the global distribution of women’s ceramic traditions whose technologies are clearly dominated by handbuilding and open firing. Vincentelli also makes the case that when wheel and kiln technologies are introduced or adopted in traditional settings, there is a marked shift to male practitioners. 9. B. E. Frank, Mande Potters, 17. As one example of this gender bias, African art historian Barbara Frank, who has studied traditional potters in the Mande-speaking societies of Mali in great depth, states that “with few exceptions, women hold a virtual monopoly on ceramic production throughout the Mande heartland and the Inland Niger Delta regions” (B. E. Frank, Mande Potters, 17). 10. Crichlow, “Alternative Approach,” 77–99. This article focuses exclusively on the little -known details of family land ownership in Choiseul, and states that in 1986 58 percent of all agricultural holdings in Choiseul were parcels of family land...


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