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273 Index achievement ideology: advantages of believing in, 32–33, 52–53, 224n24; in American tradition, 20, 22, 180; compatible with reliance on kin ties, 10, 63–65; definition, 23; as a driver of policy, 7; health effects, 33; hindering social ties, 9, 23, 67, 89, 173; persistence among KWRU members, 21, 24, 90, 112; among poor people generally, 35; rejection by KWRU members, 10, 48–49, 92, 173, 224n34; rejection to protect sense of self, 33, 112, 224n24; among religious participants, 32; strengthened by a weakened private safety net, 4, 6 agency of individuals: belief that it has more power than structure, 21, 23, 32, 43, 46–54, 61–62, 63, 134, 140; belief in its power leading to avoiding asking for help, 61; belief in its power compatible with dependence on the state, 229n14; belief in its power leading to belief in the power of education, 57; definition, 29; power of as an aspect of the American Dream, 29; understanding that it exists within limited choices, 12, 18–19, 108, 110, 140, 172–73, 190, 243–4n30, 246n25. See also achievement ideology Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). See welfare alcoholism, of participants’ parents, 3 Alice (KWRU member), 70, 82, 103, 108, 119, 134–35, 215 Alyssa, 55, 67, 82, 86, 98, 184, 192, 214, 241n2 Amanda (KWRU member), 134, 146, 167, 168, 215, 237n2 American Dream, the: belief among participants, 28, 29, 47; definition, 29, 30–31; disappointment in, 54, 183, 224n34; waning, 170; widespread belief among Americans, 30, 32, 35, 170–71, 180, 224n4 Anderson, Elijah, 80 Anderson, Leon, 35, 80 April, 71, 75, 79–80, 82–83, 88, 214 Armstrong, Elizabeth M., 241n3 Barro, John, 247n44 Bebe, 31, 37, 40, 41, 67, 86, 214, 224–25n18, 226n37 Beck, Ulrich, 171 Becky (KWRU member), 55, 95–96, 100, 115, 141, 157–58, 168, 215 Beezat, Robert, 189, 251–52n69 Betty, 1–3, 10–11, 16–17, 82, 86, 192, 214 Bianca, 38, 56, 187, 214, 253n10 Bourgois, Philippe, 35 brokerage: definition, 242–43n22; by KWRU, 24, 92, 100, 102, 103–4, 106, 118, 119, 157, 177–78, 242–43nn22, 23 Broughton, Chad, 81 Carmen (KWRU member), 72–3, 106–7, 111, 112, 115–16, 128, 134, 161–62, 168, 215, 236n20 Carole, 41, 47, 66, 99, 214, 253n10 274 | Index Cate (KWRU member), 91–92, 100, 104, 105–6, 116, 119, 128, 134, 142, 144, 147, 168, 215 CC (KWRU member), 100, 101, 106, 119, 120, 128–29, 142, 183, 215 certificate programs: completed by participants , 29, 38, 42, 56, 187; connection to employment, 44 child care: ambition to work in among participants, 37, 39, 50; from kin, 50, 51, 63, 64, 86, 154, 241n2; need for, 25, 51, 102, 184–85; in reciprocal exchanges, 31, 50; subsidized, 1, 23 children, having too many as a cause of poverty, 31–2 Clinton, Bill, 30 Clinton, Hillary, 5 Cobb, Jonathan, 7 Colleen (KWRU member), 48, 95, 102, 108–9, 116–17, 134, 146–47, 153, 168, 215, 236n18 college: aspirations by participants for their children, 43; aspirations by participants for themselves, 35, 40, 41; as a cause of debt, 8, 44–45, 56, 226–27n51; completion by participants, 48, 51; cost, 8; as a necessary but not sufficient credential, 8, 56 compensation for participants, 209 conflicts within KWRU, 25, 158–59, 174 Corbin, Juliet, 216 criminal record: as a barrier to employment , 39; among participants, 50 Danziger, Sandra K., 241n3 Davis, Alyssa, 6 day care: from kin, 50, 51, 63, 64, 86, 154, 241n2; need for, 25, 51, 102, 184–85; in reciprocal exchanges, 31, 50; subsidized , 1, 23 debt: college, 8, 44–45, 56, 226–27n51; personal, 8 deindustrialization in America, 49, 68 Denise, 32, 33, 54, 61, 64, 214 depression: correlating with poverty, 45; among participants, 2, 46, 89; relieved by individualism, 33 deserving poor: connection to individualism , 36; as an empty category, 36 Desmond, Matthew, 20–21, 97, 145, 148, 150–51, 158, 159, 163 Derber, Charles, 245n10 disability: learning, 53; mental, 2, 33, 45, 46, 75, 89; physical, among participants , 33, 55, 105, 115; physical, among participants’ family members, 37, 55 disposable ties: in contrast to sustainable ties, 20, 148, 149, 150–51, 159–62, 163, 174; definition, 150; formation of, 163; among poor people, 21, 145, 169, 192, 193; vulnerability to conflict, 158, 170, 174 Diva, 64–66, 192, 214 domestic violence: escape from as a precursor to KWRU membership, 24, 100, 103, 118, 119; experienced by participants, 54, 71, 86...


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