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217 Notes Preface 1 Clark, “White Professor Teaches ‘Problem of Whiteness’ Course at Arizona State.” 2 “Trouble with Schools.” 3 In the summer of 2015, the National Youth Front underwent a leadership change and received a cease-and-desist letter because their name was too similar to another youth organization. The NYF is currently organizing under the moniker of The Dispossessed, a rhetorical invocation of their claims of white victimhood. 4 Lipsitz, American Studies in a Moment of Danger, 29. Introduction 1 Rocco, “Transforming Citizenship.” 2 Vega, Latino Heartland. 3 Rosas, “Thickening Borderlands.” 4 Fowler, “Señorita Más Fina.” 5 Dyer, White, 10. 6 For a discussion of abolition and whiteness, see Roediger, Towards the Abolition of Whiteness; Olson, Abolition of White Democracy; Garner, Whiteness. 7 Garner, Whiteness, 66; Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters, 56–59, 62–63, 66–67. 8 Du Bois, Black Reconstruction; Baldwin, Price of the Ticket, xi–xx. 9 Indeed, the “naturalness” and invisibility of the system speaks to how it functions as a form of hegemony and achieves consent. 10 McKinney, Being White, 1–5. 11 The use of “common sense” to describe this form of racial hegemony comes from Omi and Winant’s discussion of a lack of coherent understanding as what counts as race and racism. Omi and Winant, Racial Formation, 70. 12 Franklin, Color Line. 13 Roediger, “Color of Whiteness Studies.” 14 McIntosh, “White Privilege,” 291. 15 Morrison, Playing in the Dark. 16 Roediger, Wages of Whiteness. 17 Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters. The concept of unwitnessing comes from Lopenzina, Red Ink, 5. 18 Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White. 218 | Notes 19 Dyer, White. 20 Lipsitz, Possessive Investment in Whiteness. 21 Mills, Racial Contract. 22 Hartigan, Racial Situations. 23 McKinney, Being White. 24 Thandeka, Learning to Be White. 25 Olson, Abolition of White Democracy. 26 Hirsch, Cultural Literacy. 27 Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters, 228–29; Dyer, White, 42–45; Thandeka, Learning to Be White, 3; McIntosh, “White Privilege,” 1. 28 Mills, Racial Contract, 18, emphasis original. 29 Dyer, White, 10; Thandeka, Learning to Be White, 3–4. 30 Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters, 60. 31 Heron, “Whitey on the Moon.” 32 Notably, the black/white binary takes on different significance in the United Kingdom . There, various communities of color are encapsulated in the term “black,” creating similar and distinct problems for the field. 33 Perea, “Black/White Binary Paradigm of Race,” 1229–31. 34 Gómez, Manifest Destinies, 88–89, 105–9. 35 Brilliant, Color of America Has Changed; Behnken, Fighting Their Own Battles; Folely, Quest for Equality. 36 Organized by Ted Hayes, the Crispus Attucks Brigade is an anti-Latina/o organization that wraps itself in U.S. nationalist discourses and civil rights movement rhetoric. See http://tedhayes.us/uscab/. 37 Omi and Winant refer to this as the “ethnic model” of understanding race. Omi and Winant, Racial Formation, 14–23. 38 That is, as Raymond Rocco and Mae Ngai have each described, Mexican-descent peoples have long been depicted as “perpetually foreign” and “alien citizens.” Thus, this ethnic-immigrant model marks Latinas/os as foreign as it holds out an unattainable lure. Rocco, “Transforming Citizenship”; Ngai, Impossible Subjects, 2. 39 Haney López, “Retaining Race,” 292. 40 Jiménez, Replenished Ethnicity. 41 Park, “Between a Myth and a Dream”; Dávila, Latinos Inc. 42 While this has certainly been a trend in the field, Dylan Rodriguez’s Suspended Apocalypse and its examination Filipinos’ relationship to white supremacy suggests that this is changing as scholars interrogate the common elements as well as the historical particularities of white supremacy. 43 Smith, “Heteropatriarchy and the Three Pillars of White Supremacy,” 70, emphasis original. 44 For linkages between prisons, slavery, and capitalism, see Blackmon, Slavery by Another Name; Gilmore, Golden Gulag. 45 Abani, “Cost of Change.” 46 Smith, “Heteropatriarchy and the Three Pillars of White Supremacy,” 69. Notes | 219 47 Ibid., 68–69. 48 Indeed, other communities have experienced multiple pillars/forms of white supremacy as well. The flexibility and specificity of Smith’s model are what I find so useful. 49 Smith, “Heteropatriarchy and the Three Pillars of White Supremacy,” 67. 50 Turner, Barbarous Mexico. 51 Pitt, Decline of the Californios, 83–119. 52 May, Manifest Destiny’s Underworld. 53 Please note that I am not contending that Chicanas/os have the same relationship to indigeneity and land as U.S. Natives. Rather, there is a complex history at play as Nicole Guidotti-Hernández has so clearly demonstrated. However...


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Subject Headings

  • Mexican Americans -- Race identity.
  • Mexicans -- United States -- Race identity.
  • Whites -- United States -- Race identity.
  • Mexican Americans in popular culture -- United States.
  • Chicano movement.
  • Stereotypes (Social psychology).
  • Racism -- United States.
  • United States -- Emigration and immigration -- Social aspects.
  • Mexico -- Emigration and immigration -- Social aspects.
  • United States -- Race relations.
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