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Chapter 1 Notes 1. Gary Cutrer, taped interview with author, Castle Gap, Texas, 9 February 1986. 2. C. C. Swift, interview with author, Crane, Texas, 23 June 1982. 3. D. Hoye Eargle, Some Uranium Occurrences in West Texas (Austin: Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations No. 27, University of Texas at Austin, September 1956), 7; Jeremiah F. McCarthy, geologist, telephone interview with author , Midland, Texas, spring 1983. 4. Carlysle Graham Raht, The Romance of Davis Mountains and Big Bend Country (Odessa: The Rahtbooks Company, Edition Texana, 1963), 30-31. 5. John S. Ford, “Letters and Documents, Opening Routes to El Paso, 1849,” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 48 (October 1944): 264. See also John S. Ford’s report in the Texas Democrat (Austin, TX), 23 June 1849, 2-3. Weick Pah, more correctly, may be Wiar Pah. See Clayton Williams, Never Again (San Antonio: The Naylor Company, 1969), 3:27. 6. J. W. Williams, Old Texas Trails (Burnet: Eakin Press, 1979), 39-41. 7. C. Williams, Never, 1:98. 8. O. W. Williams, Pioneer Surveyor-Frontier Lawyer: The Personal Narrative of O. W. Williams, 1877-1902, edited by S. D. Myres (El Paso: Texas Western College Press, 1966), 278. 9. A sizable pool undoubtedly resulting from seepage was discovered by the author near the head of the canyon on March 19, 1987, following ten months of rainfall unprecedented in the twentieth century. 10. C. C. Childress, interviewed taped by Paul Patterson, Odessa, Texas, 20 May 1968, in Southwest Collection, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. Childress was first through the gap in 1887. 11. C. Williams, Never, 2:112. Also see William E. Connelley, Doniphan’s Expedition and the Conquest of New Mexico and California (Topeka: printed by author, 1907), 267–80. 12. Ford, “Opening Routes,” 262-64. 13. John Salmon Ford, Rip Ford’s Texas (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1963), 122-123. 14. Lt. F. T. Bryan’s report in Reports of the Secretary of War, with Reconnaissances of Routes from San Antonio to El Paso, 31st Cong., 1st Sess., Senate Executive Document 64 (Washington, DC, 1850), 19. 15. John Russell Bartlett, Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua, 1850-1853, Vol. 1 (Chicago: The Rio Grande Press, Inc., 1965), 91-92. 16. Ibid., 90. Notes Notes 163 17. J. W. Williams, “Journey of the Leach Wagon Train Across Texas, 1857,” in Old Texas Trails (Burnet: Eakin Press, 1979), 313, 352–54. 18. Ibid., 365. Official name of the Butterfield operation was Overland Mail Company : Glen Sample Ely, email to author, 2 February 2016. For the definitive study of Butterfield’s operation in Texas, see Glen Sample Ely, The Texas Frontier and the Butterfield Overland Mail, 1858-1861 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2016). 19. Waterman L. Ormsby, The Butterfield Overland Mail (San Marino: The Huntington Library, 1955), 66. 20. C. Williams, Never, 3:199. Williams also noted the possibility that the rock structure originated as a soldiers’ camp. 21. Billy Rankin, taped interview with author, Rankin, Texas, 17 May 1983. 22. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Thomas B. Hunt’s Journal, 10, Q154 in Records of the Chief of Engineers, Record Group 77, National Archives, Washington, DC 23. Clayton Williams, “That Topographical Ghost—Horsehead Crossing!,” The Permian Historical Annual 17 (December 1977): 48. Also see J. Evetts Haley, “Ben Ficklin, Pioneer Mail Man,” The Shamrock Oil and Gas Corporation (Spring 1959). 24. T. U. Taylor, “Olive and W. A. Peril,” Frontier Times (July 1979, reprint of 1939 article), 24. 25. J. Evetts Haley, Charles Goodnight: Cowman and Plainsman (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1936), 127-34. 26. Such trading was so prevalent that New Mexico Territory was reportedly “filled with Texas cattle” in 1867. In return for the herds, Comanches obtained ammunition, arrow points, knives, calico, tobacco, coffee, whiskey, and gewgaws: Ernest Wallace and E. Adamson Hoebel, The Comanches: Lords of the South Plains (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, ninth printing, 1986), 267-268. See also A. B. Norton (Superintendent of Indian Affairs, New Mexico) to Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Annual Report (United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1867), 194-95. 27. Haley, Goodnight, 148. 28. Ibid., 156-58. 29. Roy Holt, “The Old Horsehead Crossing on the Pecos,” Sheep and Goat Raiser (November 1952), 44. 30. Clayton Williams, Texas’ Last Frontier: Fort Stockton and the Trans-Pecos 18611895 (College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1982), 91. Also see US Department of War, Post Surgeon’s Report, Fort Stockton, June 1868. The scarcity of potable water prohibited...