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Notes Introduction 1. The Italian “brain drain” movement refers to the exodus of Italian intellectuals, artists,andespeciallyacademicscholarssincethe1990s;a2004studycalculatedthat between 1990 and 1998, among Italian emigrants the number of people with degrees quadrupled (Economist, June 6, 2011). For more details, see Foadi 2006. 2. Raffaele Inserra grew up and lives today in the small town of Gragnano, in the provinceofNaples,whereIalsogrewupandliveduntil2004.Wealsohappentoshare asurname,sinceInserraisaverycommonnameinthearea;whilewearenotimmediately related, having common relatives and family friends certainly helped secure his collaboration and support during my interview with him as well as my fieldwork research in the area. 3. While the Italian “brain drain” is currently contributing to an increasing number of Italian scholars and researchers moving to the University of Hawai‘i, since I moved to Hawai‘i in 2004 I have encountered only a few people from southern Italy; inaddition,southernItalianfolkmusicanddancesremainanicheculturaltrendeven among southern Italians, even as the larger population is more and more exposed to them within the current revival phenomenon. 4.InstandardItalian,“tarantellanapoletana”isamorecommonspelling(emphasis added). 5. Its common attribution to Neapolitan painter and writer Salvator Rosa (Paliotti 1992; Cossentino 2013) already testifies to tarantella’s gradual move away from folk music and toward a more refined music and dance form. 180  •  Notes to Introduction 6.Severalscholarsofthepost-1990starantellarevivalhavefurtherdevelopedDeMartino ’sstudyandinsomecasesmovedbeyondDeMartino’stoillustratethecentralityof thetranceelementwithinthetarantismphenomenon(Lapassade2001;DeGiorgi1999) andthesimilaritiesbetweentarantismandothercultsofpossessionaroundtheworld, aswellasbetweensouthernItalianandotherexamplesofMediterraneantarantellaand tarantism(DeGiorgi1999).See,inparticular,theItalianvolumeTrance,guarigione,mito: Antropologiaestoriadeltarantismo (2000), curated by Gino Di Mitri. 7.AlltranslationsfromItalian,aswellasfromtheNeapolitanlanguagecommonto the city of Naples and the Campania region, are mine unless otherwise noted. Neapolitan was recently established as an official Italian language by UNESCO (1995– 2010), but also a “vulnerable” one since it is gradually weakening due to the pressure of standard Italian both in school and in the media. This is one of the reasons why many contemporary writers do not follow a common orthography; for example, the phrase ballosultamburo (or dance on the drum) can be written in Neapolitan as “balle ’ncopp’ ’o tambur,” where tambur is the same as tammurre or tambure, à la variants of the standard Italian tamburo (drum). 8. De Martino argues that this interpretation created an “irreconcilable conflict between the popular ideology of the taranta and the new science,” which then led to the“progressivefolkloricisolation[oftarantism]anditsgradualreductiontoa‘relic’ and ‘fragment’” (2005, 235). 9. In 2004 the group changed its name to Spakka-Neapolis 55. 10.AsBennatoputsit,“Whenonaternarybasethechantsuddenlyexplodes,inan unexpected binary pattern, it creates a swing effect, and therefore a sense of disruption ,asifthetarantato,pastorpresent,wascaughtbetweenareassuringbasicrhythm and an unpredictable chant pattern” (2001, 91). 11.TheNeapolitanequivalentofItaliantamburo(drum).Tammurriataisalsocalled “tammorriata” in standard Italian by nonlocal performers and practitioners. 12. As the dance component has acquired a complex structure with many geographical variants, so has the singing component been used for different purposes, namely,asanarrativesubtexttothedancechoreography,asaninvitationtodance,as adialoguebetweentheprotagonists(singers),andasarepresentationofeverydayor extraordinaryeventsthroughtheuseofpantomime.Acomplexandinterdisciplinary art form by definition, canto a ballo has been used to express the collective identity of a group or a community and represents one of the most successful forms of social interaction. According to Gala (1993), the presence of a textual component allows for a verbal exchange among the participants and for the singers to “show off” their vocal abilities; at the same time, the dance allows for physical expressions of love, physical strength, and competition among group members, while also educating the participants to the accepted norms of social behavior and body posture. 13. Schneider explains, “Italy was certainly affected by Orientalism. For, although the imperial powers of the north did not envision the Italian peninsula as a land they had to colonize—its inhabitants were European Christians, after all—it was nevertheless their goal that Italian resources and products circulate freely in international Notes to Introduction and Chapter 1  • 181 markets, that Italian markets be open to English and French manufacturers, and that Italian elites share and support the world civilization system that these powers believeditwastheirprerogativetocreate .Assuchtheycriticallyscrutinizedthedivergent polities of the peninsula on the eve of their unification in 1860, much to the disadvantage of the Neapolitan Kingdom of the Two Sicilies that governed the Southern region and Sicily” (1998, 5). 14. This position also ends up perpetuating a commonly held assumption at the time,bothinEuropeanandinU.S.scholarship,thatfolkloreisbydefinitionsomething belonging to the past and about to vanish (Bendix 1997). 15. On July 7, 2015, the Italian newspaper IlSole24ore reported data collected by the RegistryofItaliansResidentAbroad(AIRE);accordingtothisdata,in2014thenumber ofItaliannationalsmigratedabroadwasmorethanonehundredthousand,thelargest number since 2004 (Nava). The article also warns that the actual number of Italians requesting a visa in foreign countries is often much larger than the number registered by AIRE. According to another 2015 report, the Dossier...