Index
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225 Index �������������� Adams, Bluford, 22, 24, 35, 45, 195n4, 198n69 Adams, John Quincy, 8 advertising, 6, 70, 161, 208n22; Barnum and, 21–23, 26, 29, 43, 195n1; Whitman and, 198n3. See also Barnum, P. T.: promotional strategies of; publicity affect, 11, 16–17, 58, 73, 85–86, 98, 109, 160, 186, 189; affective expression, 11, 170, 189; celebrity culture and, 19; as commodity, 23; Dickens and, 115; feminine, 171; irony and, 165; public, 51, 85; public sphere and, 18. See also desire; pleasure agency, 9, 13, 27, 95, 140 agonism, 20, 165 American Anti-­ Slavery Society (AASS), 118–19, 132, 143 amusement, 23, 65, 96, 135; Barnum and, 23, 26, 28–29, 42, 45, 48–50; paid, 15, 24; popular, 92, 103–4, 117, 119 Anderson, Benedict, 12 Arendt, Hannah, 124, 165 audience, 15, 81, 194n22; American, 198n57; authority of, 2–4, 35, 42, 117; Barnum’s, 15–16, 22–29, 34–44, 48–50, 131, 195n4; celebrities and, 8, 13, 17; Douglass’s, 131, 139, 147; Emerson’s, 17, 88, 91, 97–98, 100–102, 105–6, 108, 110–12, 116; Fern’s, 166, 170, 179; hype and, 29; interpretation, 2–5; popular, 203n33; print culture and, 8; slaves as, 127; white, 35, 40, 50, 137, 139; Whitman’s, 51, 62, 67, 76, 78. See also mass audience Augst, Thomas, 92, 95 Auld family, 129, 147–49, 152 Auld, Hugh, 124, 129 Auld, Thomas, 18, 133, 139, 148, 150–52, 205n28 Aurora. See New York Aurora authority, 1, 14–15, 52, 60–61, 69, 72, 79, 102, 112, 162–64, 168, 170, 199n29, 200n40; and audience, 3–4, 35, 42, 117; of authorship, 2; blackness and, 119; celebrity and, 61–62; celebrity culture and, 2; editorial, 16; emotional , 19; gender and, 209n56; impersonal, 56–57, 111, 117; intellectual, 25, 35, 100, 117, 174; interpretive, 24, 64, 66–68, 80, 85, 93; male, 117, 176; moral, 107; patriarchal, 46; personal, 57–60; political, 9, 57, 59; popular, 90; of print, 8; slavery and, 137; social, 7, 57, 59, 61, 67, 117, 174, 176, 181; spectatorship and, 22–23, 43; state, 55; white, 40, 119, 138–39. See also cultural authority authorship, 2, 6–7, 69, 156, 161, 174, 186, 193n15, 195n1, 200n42, 205n31; authority of, 2; as self-­ making, 23 autobiography, 158; Barnum’s, 18, 21, 23–24, 27, 29, 38, 46–47, 49; Douglass’s, 119–20, 122–23, 125, 127, 142–45, 149–50, 208n38; Fern and, 178; Ruth Hall and, 157–58, 178–79, 180, 192; women’s, 157–58, 178, 207n7. See also authorship; public sphere Baker, Houston A., 129, 145 Barnum, P. T., 15–16, 18, 63, 70–71, 123, 174, 177, 191, 196n23, 197n62, 198n69; advertising and, 15, 21–22, 25–27, 29, 35, 42, 44, 195n1; audiences, 15–16, 22–29, 34–44, 48–50, 131, 195n4; autobiography of, 24, 27, 47; celebrity of, 16, 24, 42–44, 47, 88; 226  index Emerson on, 87, 90; experience as editor, 42; fraudulence and, 21, 25–27, 32, 35–36, 42, 64, 87; human exhibits of, 15, 21, 23, 25–26, 34–35, 42, 44, 49–50, 130–31, 170, 173, 191; humbug and, 15, 22–23, 26–36, 39–42, 46, 50, 103; Humbugs of the World, 30–33, 196n26; hype and, 29–30, 39, 42, 196n18; and Indians, exhibitions of, 21, 34, 36–42, 191, 196n41; and Iranistan, 16, 44–47; Lecture Room, 35, 39–40; lectures of, 202n9; The Life of P. T. Barnum, Written by Himself, 27–29; on miscegenation, 32–34, 196n26; operational aesthetic of, 15, 25, 27, 41–42, 49; popular culture and, 15, 23–24, 33, 49, 90; populism of, 45; private life of, 43, 45–50, 178; promotional strategies of, 16, 22, 24–27, 29, 37; publicity and, 26, 43, 45, 47–50, 51; public life of, 46, 48, 198n67; racial exhibits of, 15, 23, 34–36, 42, 49, 191; on slavery, 26, 32–33, 48–49, 198n69; Struggles and Triumphs, 21, 29, 36–37, 39, 41, 47, 195n4; true womanhood and, 196n20; Universalism of, 47–48; whiteness and, 33, 49–50; as a writer, 23. See also freaks; freak shows; “What Is It?” Barnum’s American Museum, 21, 34, 36, 45, 95, 174, 195n4; Whitman and, 63 Bennett, James Gordon, 26, 57 Benstock, Shari, 157, 178 Berlant, Lauren, 167 best-­ seller, rise of, 6–7, 159, 193n16 black Americans, 152; privacy and, 122 blackness, 36, 137, 143–44, 153 Blake, David H., 62, 70–72, 77...


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