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193 Introduction 1. Henry James, “Emerson,” in James, Partial Portraits, 32, 22, 33. 2. Ibid., 25. 3. Leon Edel, introduction to James, Partial Portraits, xv. 4. James, Partial Portraits, 32. 5. Dyer, “Stars as Images,” 153. 6. Dyer, Heavenly Bodies, 4. 7. Tompkins, Reader-­Response Criticism, xv. Tompkins is commenting here on Wolfgang Iser’s idea of the reader’s role in constructing meaning. 8. Tompkins, Sensational Designs, xi. 9. In their introduction to Materializing Democracy, Russ Castronovo and Dana D. Nelson ask, “How central are materials such as public space, novels, advice manuals, celebrities, mass communication technology, classrooms, or prisons to the building of democracy?” (10). 10. On the relationship between celebrity and politics, see Marshall, Celebrity and Power; Blake, Walt Whitman and the Culture of American Celebrity, 54–58. 11. Braudy, Frenzy of Renown, 38, 29. 12. Ibid., 371, 372. 13. Mole, Byron’s Romantic Celebrity, 1, 3. 14. Mole, Romanticism and Celebrity Culture, 12. 15. The association of professional authorship with entrepreneurship is from Dowling , Capital Letters, 2. The characterization of authorship prior to the market revolution as a gentlemanly pursuit is informed by Buell, New England Literary Culture, 58–59. In addition to these works, the key texts on the professionalization of authorship include Charvat, Profession of Authorship in America; Coultrap-­McQuinn, Doing Literary Business ; Brodhead, Cultures of Letters; Zboray, Fictive People; and Newbury, Figuring Authorship in Antebellum America. 16. On the emergence of the best-­ seller, see Mott, Golden Multitudes; Geary, “Domestic Novel.” 17. McGill, American Literature, 17. 18. Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author,” in Barthes, Image, Music, Text, 147. 19. Ibid., 143. Notes �������������� 194  Notes to the introduction 20. Lehuu, Carnival on the Page, 4. 21. Warner, “Mass Public,” 381. 22. The persuasive power of physical proximity between orator and audience is a central idea in Gustafson, Eloquence Is Power. 23. One might make the case that in our current moment, audiences have greater access to celebrities thanks to the preponderance of social media, which enable celebrities to address audiences directly. A fuller consideration of these questions requires analysis of new media and the rhetorics they generate. As a starting point see Jenkins, Convergence Culture. Jenkins defines convergence culture as the place “where old and new media collide, where grassroots and corporate media intersect, where the power of the media producer and the power of the media consumer interact in unpredictable ways” (4). This media environment is far different from what I describe in this book, and it discourages simple comparisons between nineteenth-­ century celebrity culture and twenty-­ first-­ century celebrity culture. See also Marwick and boyd, “To See and Be Seen,” as well as Page, “Linguistics of Self-­ Branding.” 24. Elmer, Reading at the Social Limit, 7. 25. Warner, “Mass Public,” 386. 26. Adorno and Horkheimer, “Culture Industry.” 27. Boorstin, Image, 49, 57. 28. Smith, “Resisting the Gaze of Embodiment,” 80. 29. Sorisio, Fleshing Out America, esp. chap. 1. See also Sanchez-­Eppler, Touching Liberty . 30. See Dillon, Gender of Freedom. 31. Warner, “Mass Public,” 383. 32. On the presence of women in public life, see Dillon, Gender of Freedom. See also Ryan, “Gender and Public Access,” and Ryan, Civic Wars. 33. Nelson, National Manhood, 17. 34. Garvey, Creating the Culture of Reform, 14–19. 35. Castiglia, Interior States, 102. 36. Nelson, National Manhood, 34. 37. Goldsmith, “Celebrity and the Spectacle of Nation,” 22. 38. Rojek, Celebrity, 14–15. 39. Anderson, Imagined Communities. 40. Jefferson, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 148–52. 41. Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 263, 264. 42. Greiman, Democracy’s Spectacle. 43. Marshall, Celebrity and Power, 57–58, 65. 44. For the view that the celebrity projects a stable self, see Dyer, “Stars as Images,” 162–75. Of equal interest, John Langer’s study of television personalities also emphasizes the stability of the celebrity’s projected self. See Langer, “Television’s ‘Personality System.’” 45. Elmer, Reading at the Social Limit, 29. Notes to chapter one 195 46. Mouffe, Democratic Paradox, 103. 47. Emerson, Collected Works, 1:168. Chapter 1. P. T. Barnum 1. On Barnum’s role in the history of advertising, see Applegate, Personalities and Products, 60. Jennifer Wicke discusses Barnum’s self-­ referentiality as authorship in the Foucouldian sense of the creation of a new discourse. See Wicke, Advertising Fictions, esp. 63–64. David Haven Blake discusses Barnum’s importance to the language and aesthetics of advertising in his Walt Whitman and the Culture of American Celebrity, 98–137. 2. P. T. Barnum, Struggles and Triumphs, 161...