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N o t e s Preface. the Daily Grind 1. Hughes (1958), 42. 2. Most names of people are real, and all place names are real. I discuss these decisions in the appendix. 3. See Ocejo 2014, 5, 133, 146–47, 161, 176–79. 4. I get the concept of a “taste community,” or a group socially constructed around the preferences of its members for particular artifacts and cultures, from Ferguson ’s (1998; 2004) influential work on the origins of a national French cuisine. 5. They are like many of the artists Lloyd (2006) studied in Chicago, who identify as “artists” even though most of their income comes from service work. 6. I use Becker’s (1996) notion of achieving “breadth” in qualitative research, or trying to find out at least some information on every topic that the research touches on, as a guiding principle in my work. 7. I discuss in detail the specific research methods I used to obtain the information in this book, and provide further methodological insights, in the appendix. 8. As I explain in the introduction, most of this book focuses on men. 9. In their classic formulation of “grounded theory,” Glaser and Strauss (1967) refer to this technique as “theoretical sampling.” I discuss my selection of field sites and interview participants in the appendix. 10. Scholars generally credit Braverman’s (1974) work with setting off discussions and debates on the process of deskilling in work. I will discuss how each trade experienced deskilling, and how these new workers interpret this history, in the chapters of part I. But in general these reasons include some combination of shifts in their larger industries and in the greater economy, changes in the cultures of their workplaces and in the perceptions people have of these jobs in larger society, and technological advancements. 11. Van Maanen and Barley (1984) define an “occupational community” as “a group of people who consider themselves to be engaged in the same sort of work, whose identity is drawn from their work, who share with one another a set of values, norms, and perspectives that apply but extend beyond work related matters , and whose social relationships meld work and leisure” (287). ‹ 286 › N o t e s t o p r e f a c e 12. See Brown-Saracino (2010); Grazian (2006); and Lloyd (2006); as well as my previous book (Ocejo 2014). 13. Peterson (1992) first developed this concept in his research on people’s musical tastes. I discuss it in much greater detail in the introduction. 14. See Kalleberg (2011). 15. Based on findings from two surveys by the National Opinion Research Council (one from 1947; the other from 1963), Sennett and Cobb (1972) cite the most desirable jobs in the United States in the middle of the twentieth century (221– 25). Out of ninety occupations, bartender and barber rank in the bottom quarter. Distiller is not on the list (although “machine operator in a factory” is, and it also ranks toward the bottom), and neither, oddly, is butcher. In a more recent piece, Simpson et al. (2014) find that butchers today still assign great value to their work for the income it gives them to raise their children and support them through college so that they don’t have to become butchers. Hughes (1958) developed the concept of “dirty work” to refer to jobs that deal with activities that are physically and/or morally degrading or repulsive (a garbage collector is an example of just the former, while an embalmer combines both). Since they perform a necessary function, society delegates these activities to certain jobs, which in effect stigmatizes them. Of the four jobs in this book, only butcher combines the two, because of the ethics surrounding the slaughter of animals. But all four are dirty jobs in a physical sense. See Ashforth and Kreiner (1999) and Dick (2005) for additional discussions of the term. 16. See Kalleberg (2011). 17. Swidler (1986) defines a cultural repertoire as a set of knowledge, skills, and symbols that provide the materials from which individuals and groups construct “strategies of action.” Also see Lamont’s (1992) comparative analysis of how successful American and French men are able to define value, and Faulkner and Becker’s (2009) work on how jazz musicians rely on shared repertoires to perform together, even as strangers. 18. I continued conducting interviews and doing occasional fieldwork after this date. But I conducted the bulk of the research during this six...


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