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201 introduction 1. Reagan’s action occurred on the same day Oliver North and other defendants were indicted on Iran-Contra charges. In the ensuing two weeks activists staged more than two hundred protests in 150 US cities. Christian Smith, Resisting Reagan: the U.S. Central America Peace Movement (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 85; and Doyle McManus and David Lauter, “Statements on Honduras Stir Skepticism in Congress,” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1988. On Bay Area gay and lesbian participation, see Tede Matthews, “Coming Out for Peace: Lesbians and Gays Play Major Role in Protests,” San Francisco Sentinel (April 8, 1988), 8; and “Gays, Lesbians Spearhead Peace Demos,” San Francisco Sentinel (March 25, 1988), 3. 2. Raphael, Gonzalez, and Matthews, quoted in Matthews, “Coming Out for Peace,” 14. 3. On the concept of scales, see Neil Smith, “Contours of a Spatialized Politics ,” Social Text 33 (1992): 55–81. 4. In Britain, the gay left found particularly important expression in the latter 1970s through the publication Gay Left, the best-known member of whose staff was Jeffrey Weeks. During the UK miners’ strike of the mid-1980s, lesbian and gay leftists organized Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners (LGSM), recently celebrated in the film Pride (2014) and resuscitated since 2015 as Lesbians and Gays Support the Migrants. See Emily K. Hobson, “Pits and Perverts: A Review of Pride,” Outhistory blog, November 13, 2014; Diarmaid Kelliher, “Solidarity and Sexuality: Lesbians and Gays Support the Miners 1984–5,” History Workshop Journal 77 (spring 2014): 240–62. 5. Roger Harkenrider, quoted in Word Is Out: Stories of Some of Our Lives, dir. Mariposa Film Group (New Yorker Films, 1977). Notes 202 | Notes to Pages 4–6 6. On the Gay Liberation Theater, see chapter 1; on Stonewall and the Gay Liberation Front, see, especially, Martin Duberman, Stonewall (New York: Penguin , 1993); Terrence Kissack, “Freaking Fag Revolutionaries: New York’s Gay Liberation Front, 1969–1971,” Radical History Review 62 (1995): 104–34; KC Diwas, “Of Consciousness and Criticism: Identity in the Intersections of the Gay Liberation Front and the Young Lords Party” (MA thesis, Department of Women’s History, Sarah Lawrence College, 2005); and David Carter, Stonewall : The Revolution That Sparked the Gay Revolution (New York: St. Martin ’s Griffin, 2010). 7. Konstantin Berlandt, “Konstantin Berlandt in FANTASYLAND,” Gay Sunshine 7 (June–July 1971), 14. 8. Multiple organizations—for example, the Lavender & Red Union, the Lavender Left, and the Workers World Party—used or use the metaphor “lavender and red.” However, no one group or ideological formation can claim the phrase as its own. 9. Roderick Ferguson, Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Color Critique (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004), 126–27. 10. The term “intersectionality” was coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw, in “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics,” University of Chicago Legal Forum 1989:1 (1989): 139–67; and “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review 43: 6 (1991): 1241–99. It is important to note here that Ferguson does not simply continue women of color feminism. Rather, he cites it as central to his concept of “queer of color critique” and thereby expands the breadth of intersectional analysis. Queer of color critique draws on Marxist analysis and sociology but rejects those traditions’ tendencies to view queer black subjects as “deviant” or “pathological.” Here Ferguson draws extensively on José Esteban Muñoz’s concept of “disidentification”; see, for example, Ferguson, Aberrations in Black, 4, 8, 11. 11. Gloria Anzaldúa and Cherríe Moraga, eds., This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Kitchen Table Press, 1983; 1st ed., Watertown, MA: Persephone Press, 1981). 12. See, for example, David Deitcher, ed., The Question of Equality: Lesbian and Gay Politics in America since Stonewall (New York: Scribner, 1995); Elizabeth Armstrong, Forging Gay Identities: Organizing Sexuality in San Francisco, 1950–1994 (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2002). 13. My thanks to one of my anonymous manuscript readers, who used the term “Stonewall exceptionalism” to describe my draft of this argument. 14. Paul Buhle coined the term “good sixties/bad sixties” to summarize Todd Gitlin’s argument in Gitlin’s Years of Protest, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam , 1993); Paul Buhle, “Madison Revisited,” Radical History Review 57 (1993): 248. A declension narrative is apparent in popular memory and in much other scholarship on the period, including...


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