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. 185 NOTES PREFACE 1 One could, perhaps, argue that all textual-­ based game research is, in part, ethnographic since the study of those games is entirely dependent on the subject position of the player. But I do my best throughout this book to keep my personal experiences with games apart from my critical analysis. 2 Chess and Shaw, “A Conspiracy of Fishes.” INTRODUCTION 1 It is worth noting that none of the articles on the Nintendo Knitting Machine describes the specifics of how it functioned, how it might have been a game, or what the peripheral actually did. These aspects appear to remain a mystery. 2 Goldfarb, “Nintendo Almost Made a Knitting Add-­ On for NES.” 3 Ibid. 4 Another final question, of course, is how it actually was intended to work. 5 It seems worth pointing out that combining fabric arts with computer games need not be essentializing. Feminist game designer and scholar Gillian Smith, for example , has worked with teams to create quilting games. One game, Threadsteading, combines the styles of territory games with quilting machines. These efforts envision a clever design that far exceeds what we know about the Nintendo Knitting Machine. 6 Kocurek, Coin-­Operated Americans. 7 Modleski, Loving with a Vengeance. 8 Casti, “Women Play Video Games.” 9 Or clone games like Cow Clicker meant to mock the format and game-­ play style. 10 Cline, Ready Player One, 53. 11 Walter, “Forget Iron Man–­ Child”; Roberts, “Why I’m Done With ‘Geek Culture’”; Chu, “Your Princess Is in Another Castle.” 12 Kocurek, Coin-­Operated Americans; Bergstrom, Fisher, and Jenson, “Disavowing ‘That Guy.’” 186 . NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 13 Consalvo, “Confronting Toxic Gamer Culture.” 14 Kocurek, Coin-­Operated Americans; Ray, Gender Inclusive Game Design. 15 Kent, Ultimate History of Video Games; Ray, Gender Inclusive Game Design. 16 Ibid. 17 Kocurek, Coin-­Operated Americans, xvi. 18 Kent, Ultimate History of Video Games. 19 Cassell and Jenkins, “Chess for Girls?” 20 Glos and Goldin, “An Interview with Brenda Laurel.” 21 Cassell and Jenkins, “Voices from the Combat Zone.” 22 Gray, Race, Gender, and Deviance in Xbox Live. 23 Taylor, Play between Worlds, 123. 24 Marcotte, “Teen Girls Love Video Games, but They’re Really Quiet about It.” 25 Wirman, “Playing by Doing and Players’ Localization of The Sims 2.” 26 Pearce, Communities of Play. 27 Harvey, Gender, Age, and Digital Games in the Domestic Context. 28 Hardcore gaming will be described in more detail below. 29 Consalvo, “Crunched by Passion.” 30 Makuch, “Percentage of Female Developers Has More Than Doubled since 2009.” 31 Consalvo, “Crunched by Passion.” 32 Fron et al., “Hegemony of Play,” 1. 33 Gray, Race, Gender, and Deviance in Xbox Live. 34 Consalvo, “Confronting Toxic Gamer Culture.” 35 Shaw, “Do You Identify as a Gamer?”; Shaw, “On Not Becoming Gamers”; Shaw, Gaming at the Edge. 36 Cote, “I Can Defend Myself.” 37 Chess, “36-­ 24-­ 36 Cerebrum”; Fron et al., “Hegemony of Play.” 38 Chess, “36-­24-­36 Cerebrum.” 39 Harris, “Feminization of Gaming.” Obviously, this predates our current moment where all these devices have been integrated into a single device, the smartphone. 40 Harvey, Gender, Age, and Digital Games in the Domestic Context, 135. 41 Juul, Casual Revolution, 8. 42 Ibid. 43 Consalvo, “Hardcore Casual.” 44 Vanderhoef, “Casual Threats,” para. 39. 45 In his book A Casual Revolution, Jesper Juul traces the roots of what he refers to as the “matching tile” game back to Tetris. However, it seems important within this book to focus on the feminized iterations of what has now become the match-­ 3 genre of video games. 46 Kato, “Space Invaders,” 40. 47 Chess, “How to Play a Feminist.” 48 Kennedy, “Lara Croft”; Schleiner, “Does Lara Croft Wear Fake Polygons?”; Wirman, “Princess Peach Loves Your Enemies, Too.” 49 Flanagan and Nissenbaum, Values at Play in Digital Games; Flanagan, Critical Play; Lazzaro, “Are Boy Games Even Necessary?” NOTES TO INTRODUCTION . 187 50 Jenson and de Castell, “Theorizing Gender and Digital Gameplay”; Jenson and de Castell, “Ethnographic Study of Gender and Digital Gameplay”; Jenson, Fisher, and de Castell, “Disrupting the Gender Order”; Royse et al., “Women and Games”; Taylor, Play between Worlds; Downey, “Here and There of a Femme Cave.” 51 Consalvo, “Confronting Toxic Gamer Culture”; Jenkins, “Complete Freedom of Movement”; Kocurek, Coin-­Operated Americans. 52 Gray, “Collective Organizing, Individual Resistance, or Asshole Griefers?”; Gray, Race, Gender, and Deviance in Xbox Live; Nakamura, “Don’t Hate the Player, Hate the Game.” 53 Salter and Blodgett, “Hypermasculinity and Dickwolves”; Blodgett and Salter, “Hearing ‘Lady...