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263 Notes Introduction 1. Fedor Dostoevskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii v tridtsati tomakh (henceforward PSS), 25:202; Fyodor Dostoevsky, A Writer’s Diary, 2:1072. 2. Karl Marx, letter dated April 11, 1881. Quoted in David Footman, Red Prelude: A Life of A. I. Zhelyabov, 222. The full letter may be accessed at http:// www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1881/letters/81_04_11.html. 3. Stephen G. Marks also sees terrorism as among Russia’s foremost contributions to the modern world. Although terrorism does not figure in the alliterative list of his title, he devotes the first chapter of the book to it. See How Russia Shaped the Modern World: From Art to Anti-Semitism, Ballet to Bolshevism, 7–37. 4. “Western Eyes” refers to the title of Joseph Conrad’s 1911 novel about revolutionary terrorism. Martin Malia took it for his historical study of the West’s perceptions of Russia, Russia Under Western Eyes: From the Bronze Horseman to the Lenin Mausoleum. Malia claims that the apex of the West’s perception of Russia as an “oriental despotism” preceded the Crimean War and that by the late nineteenth century Russia was perceived as a modernizing nation. However, the image of “oriental despotism” died hard, thanks to a pronounced desire on the part of the West to continue to orientalize Russia and the Russian state and to cast it as a cultural/ideological enemy of the West. 5. The Fenians developed the techniques of skirmishing, guerilla warfare, and dynamite campaigns just as terrorism in Russia took the shape of the “Russian Method.” They also had their propaganda vehicles, such as the newspaper The Irish World, based in New York. The historian Niall Whelehan cites two 264 Notes to Pages 5– 6 primary differences between the Russian Nihilists and the Fenians in order to account for the traditional recognition of the Russians as the first terrorists: 1) Russians consciously embraced the word “terrorist” whereas the Fenians rejected it as a pejorative; and 2) intellectuals (i.e., writers) predominated among Russia’s revolutionary terrorists. See Whelehan, The Dynamiters: Irish Nationalism and Political Violence in the Wider World, 1867–1900. See also Owen McGee, The IRB: The Irish Republican Brotherhood from The Land League to Sinn Féin. 6. In his response to the Fenians’ first salvo in December 1867, the demolition of the outer wall of Clerkenwell Prison using 458 pounds of gunpowder, Friedrich Engels expressed his opprobrium in terms precisely the opposite of Marx’s praise for the People’s Will. “The Clerkenwell folly was obviously the work of a few special fanatics; it is the misfortune of all conspiracies that they lead to folly ‘because we really must do something, we really must get up to something.’ Especially in America there has been a lot of bluster amongst this explosive and incendiary fraternity, and then along come some individual jackasses and instigate this kind of nonsense.” Engels to Marx, Manchester, 19 December 1867. The full letter can be accessed at http://www.marxists.org /archive/marx/works/1867/letters/67_12_19.html. 7. David Chalmers was one of the first historians to identify Clan violence as “terrorism.” See Chalmers, Hooded Americanism. Scholars such as Carola Dietze have explored the United States’ very problematic relationship to its own history of terrorism. See Dietze, Die Erfindung des Terrorismus in Europa, Russland, und den USA 1858–1866, 31–33. 8. In his The Age of Terrorism, Walter Laqueur is explicit on this point. “The achievements of Irish terrorism have been much less striking, but it has continued on and off for a much longer period. There have been countless ups and downs ever since the emergence, partly due to agrarian unrest, of the United Irishmen in 1791.” Laqueur, The Age of Terrorism, 17. One of the few historians to give “precedence” to the Irish American Fenians has been Michael Burleigh in his Blood and Rage: A Cultural History of Terrorism. 9. There were in fact seven attempts on Queen Victoria’s life between 1840 and 1882, none of which have gone down in the annals of terrorism and none of which succeeded. For comparative chronologies of terrorism, consult two recent reference works on terrorism: Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, eds., Chronologies of Modern Terrorism, and Sean Anderson and Stephen Sloan, eds., Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. The latter omits both Karakozov’s 1866 attempt on Alexander II and the attempt on Queen Victoria, but includes Nechaev’s 1869 Catechism of a Revolutionary. 10. The influence...


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Subject Headings

  • Russian literature -- Political aspects.
  • Terrorism -- Russia -- History -- 19th century.
  • Terrorism in literature.
  • Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, 1818-1881 -- Assassination.
  • Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 1821-1881 -- Political and social views.
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