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181 Notes Introduction 1. L’Esquive, DVD, directed by Abdellatif Kechiche (2003; Paris: Noé Productions , 2004). 2. Ari Blatt, “The Play’s the Thing: Marivaux and the Banlieue in Abdellatif Kechiche’s L’esquive,” The French Review 81, no. 3 (2008): 516. 3. Ibid., 517. 4. For a thorough account of these debates, see Joan W. Scott, The Politics of the Veil (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007). 5. David Looseley, The Politics of Fun: Cultural Policy and Debate in Contemporary France (Oxford: Berg, 1995), 36. 6. See Emma Cox, Theatre and Migration (Basingstoke, Eng.: Palgrave Macmillan , 2014), 1–­ 32. 7. This is one of the Greek roots of the term “performance” analyzed in Shannon Jackson, Professing Performance: Theatre in the Academy from Philology to Performativity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 13. 8. Tracy Davis, “Introduction: The Pirouette, Detour, Revolution, Deflection, Deviation, Tack, and Yaw of the Performative Turn,” in The Cambridge Companion to Performance Studies, ed. Tracy Davis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 6. 9. May Joseph, Nomadic Identities: The Performance of Citizenship (Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 4. 10. See Gérard Noiriel, The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship and National Identity, trans. Geoffroy de Laforcade (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996). 11. Danièle Lochak,“Les Politiques de l’immigration au prisme de la législation sur les étrangers,” in Les Lois de l’inhospitalité: Les Politiques de l’immigration à l’épreuve des sans-​ papiers, ed. Didier Fassin, Alain Morice, and Catherine Quiminal (Paris: La Découverte, 1997), 32. 12. See Benjamin Stora, La Gangrène et l’oubli: La Mémoire de la guerre d’Algérie (Paris: La Découverte, 1991); and Neil MacMaster, Colonial Migrants and Racism: Algerians in France 1900–­ 1962 (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997). 13. As Driss Maghraoui notes, historical analyses of French government in the North African colonies quickly reveal the contradictory nature of colonial citizenship: “The French settlers were strong supporters of the politics of assimilation , but paradoxically opposed its logical outcome, which would normally grant full citizenship to Algerians.” Algerian Muslims, in other words, were considered assimilable yet denied individual rights predicated on citizenship. See Driss Maghraoui,“French Identity, Islam, and North Africans: Colonial Legacies, 182 Notes to Pages 9–15 Postcolonial Realities,” in French Civilization and Its Discontents: Nationalism, Colonialism, Race, ed. Tyler Stovall and Georges Van Den Abbeele (Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2003), 217. 14. Lochak, “Les Politiques de l’immigration,” 42. 15. Étienne Balibar, We, the People of Europe? Reflections on Transnational Citizenship, trans. James Swenson (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004), 35. 16. Cette France-​là 06/05/2007–­30/06/2008, vol. 1 (Paris: La Découverte, 2009), 95–­101. 17. Ibid., 96. 18. Michel Kokoreff and Didier Lapeyronnie, Refaire la cité: L’Avenir des banlieues (Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 2013), 29. 19. Cette France- là, 98. 20. For perhaps the most famous proponent of the argument that the modernization of the French countryside during the Third Republic was tantamount to its nationalization (and hence linguistic and cultural uniformization), see Eugen Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France 1870–­ 1914 (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1976). For the counterargument that the emergence of national identity was in fact the result of local negotiation, see Peter Sahlins, Boundaries: The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrénées (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). 21. See Jean-​ Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract and the First and Second Discourses, trans. and ed. Susan Dunn (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002). 22. For a comparison of the French and Anglophone models of citizenship, see Dominique Schnapper (with Christian Bachelier), Qu’est-​ ce que la citoyenneté? (Paris: Éditions Gallimard, 2000), 39–­ 50. 23. Gary Wilder, The French Imperial Nation-​ State: Negritude and Colonial Humanism between the Two World Wars (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 16. 24. Ibid. 25. Ibid., 158. 26.  For an overview of the journalistic ubiquity of references to communautarisme (particularly in relation to Islam) since the 1990s, see the second part of Thomas Deltombe, L’Islam imaginaire: La Construction médiatique de l’islamophobie en France 1975–­ 2005 (Paris: La Découverte, 2007). 27. Jacques Chirac quoted in Cimade, Votre voisin n’a pas de papiers: Paroles d’étrangers (Paris: La Fabrique Éditions, 2006), 12. 28. See Nacira Guénif Souilamas and Eric Macé, Les Féministes et le garçon arabe (Tour d’Aigues: Éditions de l’Aube, 2004). 29. Nacira Guénif Souilamas, “La...