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ix Acknowledgments If no book is an island, entire of itself, this book is, quite literally, a piece of more than one continent. I began this project in Berkeley, California, and concluded it in Istanbul. The journey in between those two very different cities was sustained by a series of social, intellectual, and financial structures for which I continue to be grateful on a daily basis. First and foremost, I would like to thank the theater artists and social and humanitarian aid workers in Paris and beyond who made time for me, allowed me into their homes, work spaces, and city haunts, read my long and confusing forms, and answered my questions. These individuals not only responded to my questions with hospitality, they did so despite the fact that sometimes they could not quite place me in the world. The experience of migration, with all of its attendant vulnerabilities, had either touched some of these lives or existed at the perimeters of the lives of others. Over the course of writing this book, I concluded that it would be best to maintain anonymity, but my debt remains and it is to them that I owe the utmost gratitude. Making one exception, I would like to extend a special thank-​ you to Salikha Amara and Philippe Tancelin. Although I have since shared my writing with them, I have not adequately expressed how encouraging our conversations were. Thank you, again. The seeds of this research were sown at Swarthmore College, where Ursula Neuerburg-​ Denzer patiently brought out the actor in me, and Allen Kuharski taught me how to be a scholar. Allen’s introduction to French theater and the passion with which he framed the questions of theater history were central to my decision to pursue graduate study. I thank him for his ongoing mentorship and for inviting me, years after my departure, to revisit his phenomenal theater history seminar as a colleague. Most of all, my gratitude goes to Swarthmore for giving me my anchors: Poulami Roychowdhury, Elizabeth Nolte, Elçin Akçura, and Güneş Bender’s lives have crisscrossed mine in academia and beyond, and I am thankful for their long-​ standing, nurturing friendship. My greatest debt is to Shannon Jackson, who oversaw this project’s initial conception, and whose own exemplary scholarship continues to reveal its wisdom in layers that unfold over time. I am grateful for Shannon’s trust as well as her invaluable feedback at every step of this project. Saba Mahmood , Shannon Steen, and Soraya Tlatlı were spirited, thoughtful mentors who showed tremendous patience as this project fluctuated between versions both legible and illegible. I thank them for always listening with care x Acknowledgments and responding with passion. Saba kindly read drafts long after I had left Berkeley, and I thank her for her encouragement and for posing the critical questions that now permeate chapter 2. At the University of California at Berkeley, I learned from every occasion that my path crossed those of Brandi Wilkins Catanese and Catherine Cole. Brandi and Marty Berman deserve special thanks for discovering and mentoring the teacher in me, as does Mary Ajideh, for confronting the bureaucratic hurdles of international student life with joy. The program in Women, Gender and Sexuality led me to Juana María Rodríguez, whose generous feedback remains with me and is embedded throughout this book. California was an island peopled with the best of friends and colleagues, and my heartfelt thanks go to my cohort members in performance studies, Joy Crosby Palacios, Khai Thu Nguyen, and Kelly Rafferty; and Michelle Baron, Nina Billone, Kate Kokontis, and my intellectual younger brother, Marc Boucai. The members of my California family, Shasha Geng, Nellie Tong, Alex Young, Caren Ballestamon, Celine Piser, Christine Hancock, Helaine Blumenthal, Gabriel Hetland, Zeynep Gürsel, Ojig Yeretsian, and the dear members of Opening the Mountain filled the Bay Area backdrop with sweet memories and landmarks. Back then and ever since, the awe-​ inspiring Melike Acar, Nilgün Bayraktar, and Ayşe Ercümen have made my numerous transatlantic confusions and disorientations make sense. And Ardan Araç now stands guard over my previous home, where I know I can always find her. It gives me great pleasure to thank them, one and all. My time at Johns Hopkins University proved indispensable to my ability to slow down and look at the larger picture. In the Department of German and Romance Languages and Literatures, I am grateful for the generosity of Jacques Neefs...