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NOTES list of acronyms AFHRA—Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, AL AWM—Australian War Memorial, Canberra CAPS—Combat Aircrews’ Preservation Society CSWS—Center for the Study of War and Society, University of Tennessee, Knoxville EAA—Experimental Aircraft Association ECU—East Carolina University FAA—Fleet Air Arm IWM—Imperial War Museum, Lambeth LC—Peter Liddle Collection, University of Leeds NMMEAF—National Museum of the Mighty Eighth Air Force, Pooler, GA RAAF—Royal Australian Air Force RAF—Royal Air Force RAFBCA–RAF Bomber Command Association RAFM—Royal Air Force Museum, Hendon RCAF—Royal Canadian Air Force RN—Royal Navy RNZAF—Royal New Zealand Air Force ROHA—Rutgers Oral History Archives SAAF—South African Air Force TMP—The Memory Project, Toronto TNA—The National Archives, Kew UNT—University of North Texas USAAF—United States Army Air Forces USMC—United States Marine Corps USN—United States Navy UVic—University of Victoria, BC VHP—Veterans History Project, Library of Congress WAAF—Women’s Auxiliary Air Force introduction 1. See, e.g., Canberra Times, May 31, 1927, 4; Kenneth Brown Collings, “Pilots Are Superstitious,” Flying and Popular Aviation, October 1941, 24–28, 86; Mike 114 : notes to page 1 Klesius, “One More for the Checklist,” Air & Space Magazine, September 2010,, accessed December 10, 2014; Charles Platt, Popular Superstitions (London: Herbert Jenkins, 1925), 205; Bill Wallrich, “Superstition and the Air Force,” Western Folklore 19 (1960): 11–16; Barrett Tillman, “Omens, Augurs, Jinxes and Other Aviation Superstitions,” Air Progress, April 1971, 27–29; Helen Paul White, “Airmen Slaves to Pet Superstitions,” The Sun [Baltimore], November 28, 1926, 4; Mark Wilkins, “Luck and Death: WW1 Pilots and Their Superstitions ,” Air & Space Magazine, March 20, 2014,, accessed December 7, 2014. 2. There is no mention of aircrew superstition, for instance, in the excellent book by Mark K. Wells, Courage and Air Warfare: The Allied Aircrew Experience in the Second World War (London: Frank Cass, 1995). Scholars who do mention aircrew superstition—albeit in the latter three cases necessarily in passing— include: Vanessa Ann Chambers, “Fighting Chance: Popular Belief and British Society, 1900–1951,” PhD diss., University of London, 2007, 75–87; Mark Connelly , Reaching for the Stars: A New History of Bomber Command (London: I. B. Tauris, 2001), 91; Martin Francis, The Flyer: British Culture and the Royal Air Force, 1939–1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 109, 124–125; and Paul Fussell , Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 49. For popular historians and aircrew superstition, see e.g. Patrick Bishop, Bomber Boys: Fighting Back 1940–1945 (London: HarperPress , 2007), 162–163; Martin W. Bowman, Echoes of England: The 8th Air Force in World War II (Stroud, UK: Tempus, 2006), 153–156; Spencer Dunmore and William Carter, Reap the Whirlwind: The Untold Story of 6 Group, Canada’s Bomber Force of World War II (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1991), 190–192; John C. McManus, Deadly Sky: The American Combat Airman in World War II (Novato, CA: Presidio, 2000), 312–315; Andrew R. B. Simpson, ‘Ops’: Victory at All Costs: On Operations over Hitler’s Reich with the Crews of Bomber Command, Their War— Their Words (Pulborough, UK: Tattered Flag, 2012), 105–108; James Taylor and Martin Davidson, Bomber Crew (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2004), 137–139. 3. See e.g. Conrad C. Crane, American Airpower Strategy in World War II: Bombs, Cities, Civilians, and Oil (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2016); Robert S. Ehlers Jr., The Mediterranean Air War: Airpower and Allied Victory in World War II (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2015); Richard Overy, The Bombing War: Europe 1939–1945 (London: Allen Lane, 2013); Peter Preston-Hough, Commanding Far Eastern Skies: A Critical Analysis of the Royal Air Force Air Superiority Campaign in India, Burma, and Malaya, 1941–1945 (Solihull, UK: Helion, 2015); Christopher M. Rein, The North African Air Campaign: U.S. Army Air Forces from notes to page 1 : 115 El Alamein to Salerno (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2012); Herman S. Wolk, Cataclysm: General Hap Arnold and the Defeat of Japan (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2010). 4. See Roy R. Grinker and John P. Spiegel, Men under Stress (Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1945), 131; D. Stafford-Clark, “Morale and Flying Experience: Results of a Wartime Study,” Journal of Mental Science 95 (1949): 16. 5. Francis, The Flyer, 124; see also Connelly, Reaching for the Stars, 91. 6. See e.g. Tim Cook, “Grave Beliefs: Stories of the Supernatural and the Uncanny among Canada’s Great...


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