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151 Notes Chapter One Epigraph: Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984), 108. 1. Jill Lane and Marcial Godoy-­ Anativia, introduction to “Race and Its Others ,” special issue of e-­misférica 5.2 (2008), 2. Howard Pyle, “Christmas-­ Time Two Hundred Years Ago: Fragments from the Diary of Richard Pennyworth, Esq.,” Harper’s Weekly, December 9, 1882, 780. 3. Christopher Marshall, qtd. in Charles E. Welch Jr., Oh! Dem Golden Slippers : The Story of the Philadelphia Mummers, rev. ed. (Philadelphia: Book Street Press, 1991), 22–­ 23. 4. Natalie Zemon Davis, Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford , CA: Stanford University Press, 1975), 124–­ 51. 5. Bryan Palmer, “Discordant Music: Charivaris and Whitecapping in Nineteenth-­ Century North America,” Labour/LeTravailleur 3 (1978): 5–­ 62. 6. Dale Cockrell, Demons of Disorder: Early Blackface Minstrels and Their World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 52. 7. Robert C. Toll, Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Nineteenth-­ Century America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974); Eric Lott, Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993); David R. Roediger, The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class, rev. ed. (London: Verso, 2007). 8. Pennsylvania Gazette, December 29, 1827, qtd. in Alfred L. Shoemaker, Christmas in Pennsylvania: A Folk-­ Cultural Study (1959; repr., Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1999), 77–­ 78. On the etymology of the term belsnickling, see Stephen Nissenbaum, The Battle for Christmas (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 99. 9. Nissenbaum, Battle for Christmas, 100, 102. 10. Philadelphia Sunday Dispatch, December 27, 1857, qtd. in Shoemaker, Christmas in Pennsylvania, 4. 11. Claire Sponsler, Ritual Imports: Performing Medieval Drama in America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004), 85–­ 86. 12. Samuel Breck, Recollections of Samuel Breck, with Passages from His Note-­ Books, 1771–­ 1862, ed. H. E. Scudder (Philadelphia, 1877), 35–­ 36. 13. Herbert Halpert, “A Typology of Mumming,” in Christmas Mumming in 152 notes to pages 5–10 Newfoundland: Essays in Anthropology, Folklore, and History, ed. Herbert Halpert and G. M. Story (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), 57. 14. J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott, History of Philadelphia, 1609–­ 1884 (Philadelphia, 1884), 2:935. 15. Susan G. Davis, “‘Making Night Hideous’: Christmas Revelry and Public Order in Nineteenth-­ Century Philadelphia,” American Quarterly 34.2 (1982): 185. 16. Susan G. Davis, Parades and Power: Street Theatre in Nineteenth-­ Century Philadelphia (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986), 110. 17. S. Davis, “Making Night Hideous,” 196. Until 1854 the borders of the city of Philadelphia extended from the Delaware River in the east to the Schuylkill River in the west and from Vine Street in the north to Cedar Street (later renamed South Street) in the south—­ an area of about three square miles. The Act of Consolidation, passed by the state legislature in 1854, made the city and county of Philadelphia coterminous, enlarging the size of the city to over 140 square miles. 18. “First Day of the New Century,” Philadelphia Public Ledger, January 2, 1901, in T. Dinote, “Mummers Parade Scrapbook: 1901 to 1929,” n.p., Philadelphia Mummers Museum. 19. I draw these statistics from a review of the coverage of the Mummers Parade in the Philadelphia Daily News from 1984 to 2015. 20. The fancy brigades’ performances are judged indoors at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, although they also parade on Broad Street with the other mummers divisions. 21. Maria Panaritis, “With a New Division, Mummers Embrace Diversity,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 28, 2015, 22. Ron Goldwyn, “Top Drill Team Answers Call to Glory,” Philadelphia Daily News, December 24, 1984, 6. 23. Deborah Wong, Speak It Louder: Asian Americans Making Music (New York: Routledge, 2004), 53–­ 68. 24. Sonja Trauss, qtd. in Christian DuComb, “The Wenches of the Philadelphia Mummers Parade: A Performance Genealogy,” in Performing Utopia, ed. Rachel Bowditch and Pegge Vissicaro (London: Seagull Books, 2017), 182. 25. Jared Brown, The Theatre in America during the Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 51. 26. Charles A. Poulson, collector, “Durang’s History of the Philadelphia Stage Scrapbook, 1854–­ 1863,” 1:18, Library Company of Philadelphia. 27. “Champions by Year,” Philadelphia Mummers Fancy Brigade Association , Although the first Philadelphia Mummers Parade took place in 1901, city-­ sponsored prizes were not awarded to the fancy brigade division until 1950. 28. “2013 Results,”, 29...


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