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177 Notes Preface 1. Immanuel Kant, “Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim,” in Kant’s Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim: A Critical Guide, edited by Amélie Oksenberg Rorty and James Schmidt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 22. Immanuel Kant, “Toward Perpetual Peace,” in Practical Philosophy, trans. and ed. Mary Gregor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 346. 2. Immanuel Kant, “On the Common Saying: That May Be Correct in Theory, but It Is of No Use in Practice,” in Practical Philosophy, trans. and ed. Mary Gregor (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1996), 308–­ 9. Introduction 1. The Metaphysics of Morals is one of the texts affected by Kant’s decline. Kant biographer Manfred Kuehn describes it as “disappointing. It exhibits none of the revolutionary vigor and novelty of the two earlier works [the “Groundwork” and the “Critique of Practical Reason”]. Indeed, it reads just like the compilation of old lecture notes that it is . . . much remains cryptic and . . . some of the text is corrupt”; Kant: A Biography (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 396. Although certain passages are illuminating and useful in illustrating Kant’s work in general, I am inclined to agree with Kuehn on the overall merits of this work. For Kant’s struggle with his mental decline, see the last chapter of Kuehn’s biography. 2. “Treaty of Peace between France and Prussia, signed at Basle, 5 April 1795,” in Parry’s Consolidated Treaty Series, vol. 52, ed. Clive Parry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1969), 333–­ 39. 3. For the sake of convenience given the currency it has in the discipline, I conform to the convention of referring to this essay as Toward Perpetual Peace, although I take on 178    notes to page 3 board the argument against the deployment of perpetual peace because it “obscures or even eliminates the semantic ambiguity inherent in the German concept ‘ewig’ with its religions and metaphysical connotation”; see Andreas Behnke, “‘Eternal Peace’ as the Graveyard of the Political: A Critique of Kant’s Zum Ewigen Frieden,” Millennium 36, no. 3 (2008): 513. As the reader will discover, the theological and metaphysical aspects of Toward Perpetual Peace will be brought to the fore in my analysis of the text. 4. Chris Brown, International Relations Theory: New Normative Approaches (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993), 14. 5. Howard Williams, “Kant: the Idea of Perpetual Peace,” in International Relations in Political Theory, ed. Howard Williams (Buckingham: Open University Press, 1991), 80. 6. Martin Wight’s treatment of Kant is perhaps best developed in Four Seminal Thinkers in International Theory: Machiavelli, Grotius, Kant and Mazzini (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004). Andrew Hurrell’s “Kant and the Kantian Paradigm in International Relations,” Review of International Studies 16, no. 3 (1990), is an excellent account of both Kant’s theory and its use in IR that begins from but is not restricted to the English School. Alexander Wendt identifies the Kantian as one of the three cultures of anarchy in Social Theory of International Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999). Kant is particularly prominent as an intellectual influence on social constructivism in Nicholas Onuf’s The Republican Legacy in International Thought (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998). 7. Andrew Linklater, Critical Theory and World Politics: Citizenship, Sovereignty and Humanity (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007), 4. One is wary of attaching the label of poststructuralism to their works, but insofar as it is a useful designation to mark certain traits or a shared ethos, the theorists most associated with this “movement” in IR who have addressed Kant’s work in a sustained manner (albeit in very different ways) are R. B. J. Walker and Mark F. N. Franke. Walker consistently addresses the singular importance of Kant both as a theorist of global politics in his own right and his influence on the discipline of IR; to take merely one example he refers to Kant as “the key figure in any attempt to make sense of the modern international,” in “Lines of Security: International, Imperial, Exceptional,” Security Dialogue 37, no.1 (2006): 73. Franke’s Global Limits: Immanuel Kant, International Relations and Critique of World Politics (Albany: State University Press of New York Press, 2001) is an excellent, thoughtful analysis of Kant, the effect of his texts on the development of IR theory, and the extent to which Kant’s legacy is a challenge to IR as a “discipline.” 8. There are of course some notable exceptions, like that of Mark Franke mentioned above, in which...


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