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297 Index Note: Page numbers in italics indicate table references. 1923 regime (Turkey), 12, 77–­83 1936 regime (Greece), 12, 16, 19, 47, 53, 56, 62–­68, 76, 128, 158, 188, 223n39, 230n70. See also 4th of August regime; Metaxas regime 1967 regime (Greece), 1–­2, 12, 18–­19, 42–­ 43, 46, 53, 70–­76, 106, 110–­13, 158, 248n70. See also colonels’ junta 2007 e-­memorandum (Turkey), 151, 197 4th of August regime (Greece), 12, 16, 19, 47, 53, 56, 62–­68, 76, 128, 158, 188, 223n39, 230n70. See also 1936 regime; Metaxas regime 6th of April Youth Movement, 171 Abhisit Vejjajiva, 166 Acemoglu, Daron, 25–­26, 222n29, 226n15 Adana, 79, 85, 89, 94 Aegean, 79, 82, 85–­86; islands, 53–­54, 112 Ağar, Mehmet, 136 agricultural production, 15, 85, 89 Akar, Hulusi, 197 al-­Ahzar, 181 al-­Baradei, Mohamed, 171, 181 Alexander, Gerard, 24, 37, 39 Alican, Ekrem, 92 alliances, 3, 13, 24, 45, 47, 229n56 al-­Nour Party, 181 anarchy, 1, 33, 73, 101, 102–­4, 130 Ankara, 77–­78, 91, 135, 157, 195–­96 Ankara Chamber of Industry (ASO), 102 Anti-­Coup Alliance (Egypt), 179 Arınç, Bülent, 146 arms: armaments, 13, 55, 66, 86, 103–­4, 115, 174 (see also weapons); embargo, 103; supplies, 69, 103, 115, 187, 257n2 army, 1, 36, 74, 78, 82, 98, 174; definition of, 223n40; purges in the, 92; Russian 227n34; standing, 91; strengthening of, 41, 54–­55, 61, 66, 103 artisans, 11, 147 Asia Minor, 54, 60, 79, 94, 96 Aspida affair, 73 Association of Retired Officers of the Revolution, 91 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 166 Atatürk airport, 196 Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 78, 81–­83, 85 authoritarianism: bureaucratic, 22–­23; consolidated, 3, 10–­11, 27, 31–­32, 46, 62–­63, 76, 83, 223n34; single-­party, 9–­ 10, 12, 19, 77–­87, 223n41 autonomy of the military, 33, 41, 58, 70, 72, 82–­83, 88, 111, 133, 177, 186; definition of, 8, 222n27; professional, 14, 222n27; decreasing, 27, 73, 102, 149–­50. See also under military: autonomy Axis powers, 68 ayans, 79 Aydemir, Talat, 92–­93 298  •  Index bailout, 119, 121–­23, 126–­27, 129, 192, 248n61 balance of power, 24–­25, 43, 76, 187, 194 Balkans, 54, 61 Balyoz, 152, 197, 199 Bangkok, 162, 163, 164, 166, 167 Bank of Greece, 57, 61, 205 Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency, 144 banking sector, 133, 143–­45 Başbuğ, İlker, 152 basic preferences, 13–­18, 37 Batur, Muhsin, 97 Bavarian regency, 53 Bayar, Celal, 85–­86 Bayındırbank, 144 Black May, 159 Boix, Carles, 24–­26 Bosnia, 136 bourgeoisie, 16, 56, 61, 63, 224n47, 233n19 Britain, 41, 68–­69 budget: defense, 115, 174; deficit, 89, 116–­ 18, 143–­44, 149; military, 14, 33, 35, 111, 164 Bulgaria, 61, 117, 247n39 bureaucracy, 7, 55, 94, 100, 105, 114–­16, 133, 147, 161, 169 bureaucratic authoritarianism, 22–­23. See also authoritarianism Business Bank (of Turkey), 85 businesspeople, 19, 51, 58, 64, 72, 88, 95, 96, 100, 108, 160, 162, 187, 189, 224n47, 225n66; as actors, 15–­18; and the economy , 61, 89–­90, 94, 149; in Egypt, 171–­ 75, 178–­79, 181, 261n64; interviews with, 75–­76, 98, 101–­2, 104, 110–­11, 201–­17; and the JDP, 147, 149, 153; and the Metaxas regime, 67; and the 1967 regime, 75; and the 1971 coup, 98; and the 1980 coup, 102–­5; and the 1997 coup, 137–­39, 157; in the Ottoman Empire , 79; as part of a coalition, 29, 43–­ 45, 57, 59–­60; and PASOK, 110–­11; perceptions of threat for, 36–­37; power of, 56, 69, 77; and the Republican People ’s Party, 84–­86; in Thailand, 162–­63, 166 Cairo, 68–­69, 171, 180 Çakmak, Fevzi, 83 capital: controls, 126; mobility, 24; tax, 86, 94, 162 capital punishment, 50, 57, 60, 74, 82, 92, 97, 140, 142, 149, 180 capitalism, 24–­25, 43, 99, 147 caretaker government, 73, 93, 95, 97–­98 censorship, 70, 90 Center Union (CU), 71–­75, 130 Central Security Forces (CSF), 171, 173 Chatuchak Park, 163 Chief of the General Staff: in Greece, 57, 63, 66, 112; in Turkey, 83, 91–­93, 97, 103–­4, 138, 150, 152, 197 Chios, 60 Çiller, Tansu, 135–­37 civil disobedience, 83, 122, 125 Civil Initiative group, 138 Civil Servants Confederation, 122 civil society, 15, 23, 41, 138, 142, 157, 162, 171, 175, 179, 199 civil war, 25, 179, 194, 198–­200; in Greece, 42–­43, 53, 68–­69, 72, 76, 107...