Appendix: Interviews with Greek and Turkish Elites
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201 Appendix Interviews with Greek and Turkish Elites The main part of field research for this book comes from the research I carried out for my dissertation, which I submitted to the University of Virginia’s Woodrow Wilson Department of Politics in 2007. I conducted interviews in Greece (Athens and Salonika) between September 2003 and October 2004 and in Turkey (Ankara, Izmir, and Muğla) between October 2004 and October 2005. The purpose of these interviews was to understand the threat perceptions of the elites between the 1960s and 1980s and their relative support of military interventions that took place at the time. After my dissertation, I delved into contemporary Turkish politics, and between May and July 2011, I collected the views of 26 elites for another project I participated in as a researcher. This project was funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) under the Support Program for Scientific and Technological Research Projects (1001) (project no. 110K462). Either I or a personal assistant interviewed businesspeople , workers’ representatives, journalists, and rectors of universities, asking them questions about their views on the Turkish armed forces and the reforms in civil-­military relations that were under way at the time. A year later, when I decided to convert my dissertation into a book and extend the time frame to the current state of affairs in both countries, I went back to Greece to personally catch up with recent developments. In February 2014, I interviewed 18 people in Athens, mostly businesspeople and politicians . The purpose of these interviews was to understand the current situation in greater depth than just following the news or reading the secondary literature would allow. Given the small scale of my latter rounds of interviews in Greece and Turkey and the divergent motives I had when I was conducting the research (especially when compared with the first set of interviews), I chose not to 202  •  Appendix present them in any systematic way. However, some of the evidence I present in chapters 5 and 6 is based on these people’s stories, which verified or allowed me to change my interpretations as I was accumulating information. The same caveat goes for all of the interviews I have conducted since 2003. Around 150 individuals I spoke to helped me understand and internalize the events that have taken place in Greece and Turkey since the 1960s. The importance of the contributions of the interviews to this book are both difficult to trace and hard to describe in words. Many narratives “missing ” from the book helped shape my account of events and build my theory. I cite a very few of these narratives as quotes and supporting evidence, to “animate” the story I am trying to convey or to highlight a point that occurred to me only when I was speaking to that individual. The bulk of the data is from interviews with people involved in Greek and Turkish business from the 1960s through the 1980s, the only group presented in numerical format in three chapters herein. In this appendix, I describe the way in which I conducted my interviews with businesspeople, politicians, and military officers between 2003 and 2005. I briefly point out the profiles of the 2011 and 2014 interviewees and list the questions that I asked. I conclude the appendix with the profiles of the Greek and Turkish businesspeople presented numerically in the book. Field Research in 2003–­ 5 Interviews were conducted with members of the business communities of the two countries, generals who served in the Greek armed forces between 1967 and 1974 or in the Turkish armed forces between 1960 and 1983, and politicians who served as ministers, prime ministers, and/or presidents. In Greece, interviews were carried out with 60 businesspeople, nine retired military officers (including Stylianos Pattakos), and two civilian ministers who served between 1967 and 1974. In Turkey, interviewees include 50 businesspeople , two political party leaders (one of whom retired as president of the Turkish Republic and the other as prime minister), one cabinet member of the 1971 interim government, and five retired military officers (including Kenan Evren). I conducted relatively structured interviews with the respondents. I had a fixed set of questions (listed below); but given the nature of the topic, I was occasionally forced to change the questions along the way. Most of the interviews resembled a conversation. However, I paid special attention not to ask closed-­ ended questions (except those that were among the original ques...