From: Game Changer

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Introduction. Sports, Bodies, and Technoscience 1. A colleague, who is also a tennis player, has spoken to me about using the phrase “it is the magician, not the wand” to motive his own play in a similar way. 2. The track was renamed the Sir Roger Bannister athletics track on May 10, 2007, in honor of his achievement. 3. Leo Marx, The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in Amer­ i­ ca (New York: Oxford University Press, 1964). 4. Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934); Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natu­ral History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin Press, 2006). 5. Franz Konstantin Fuss, Aleksandar Subic, and Sadayuki Ujihashi, eds., The Impact of Technology on Sport II (London: Taylor and Francis, 2008). 6. George Basalla, The Evolution of Technology (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988). 7. Donald A. MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, eds., The Social Shaping of Technology, Second Edition (Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1999). 8. Richard Sennett, The Craftsman (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008). 9. Siva Vaidhyanathan, The Googlization of Every­ thing: (And Why We Should Worry) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011). 10. Ivo van Hilvoorde, Rein Vos, and Guido de Wert, “Flopping, Klapping, and Gene Doping: Dichotomies between ‘Natu­ ral’ and ‘Artificial’ in Elite Sport,” Social Studies of Science 37 (2007): 173–200. 11. Howard Bryant, “The Truth,” ESPN The Magazine, December 12, 2011, p. 10. 12. Bruno Latour, Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Real­ ity of Science Studies (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1999); Roslyn Kerr, “Assembling High Per­ for­ mance: An Actor Network Theory Account of Gymnastics in New Zealand,” PhD diss., University of Canterbury, 2010. 13. Douglas B. Holt, John A. Quelch, and Earl L. Taylor, “How Global Brands Compete,” Harvard Business Review, 82 (September 2004): 68–75. 14. Ronald R. Kline, “Where Are the Cyborgs in Cybernetics?” Social Studies of Science 39, no. 3 (2009): 331–62; Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near: When ­ Humans Transcend Biology (New York: Penguin Books, 2006); Andrew Pickering, The Cybernetic Brain: Sketches of Another ­Future (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010). 15. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, edited with an introduction and notes by J. C. A. Gaskin (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 7. 16. Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismea­ sure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981); Gavin Schaffer, “ ‘Scientific’ Racism Again? Reginald Gates, the Mankind Quarterly and the Notes 224 NOTES TO PAGES 13–19 Question of ‘Race’ in Science ­ after the Second World War,” Journal of American Studies 41, no. 2 (2007): 253–278; William H. Tucker, The Funding of Scientific Racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007); William H. Tucker, The Science and Politics of Racial Research (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Harriet A. Washington, Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Pres­ ent (New York: Anchor Books, 2007). 17. Donna J. Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and ­Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991); N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Lit­er­a­ture, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999). 18. Jan Rintala, “Sport and Technology: ­ Human Questions in a World of Machines,” Journal of Sport and Social Issues 19, no. 1 (1995): 62–75. 19. Dave Dravecky and Mike Yorkey, Called Up: Stories of Life and Faith from the ­ Great Game of Baseball (­ Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2004), 138–139. 20. Sigmund Loland, Fair Play in Sport: A Moral Norm System (New York: Routledge, 2002), 41–106. 21. Erin E. Floyd, “The Modern Athlete: Natu­ ral Athletic Ability or Technology at Its Best,” Villanova Sports and Entertainment Law Journal 9, no. 1 (2002): 155–180. 22. Ian Woodward, “Material Culture and Narrative: Fusing Myth, Materiality, and Meaning,” in Material Culture and Technology in Everyday Life: Ethnographic Approaches, ed. Phillip Vannini (New York: Peter Lang, 2009), 60. 23. Lisa Rosner, The Technological Fix: How ­People Use Technology to Create and Solve Prob­lems (New York: Routledge, 2004). 24. Woodward, “Material Culture and Narrative,” 62. 25. Sigmund Loland, “Technology in Sport: Three Ideal-­ Typical Views and Their Implications,” Eu­ro­pean Journal of Sport Science 2, no. 1 (2002): 1–11. 26. Brandon Richard, “­ Here’s the Gold Shoes Usain Bolt Is Wearing to Dominate the Olympics,” Sole Collector, August 17, 2016, http://­solecollector​.­com​/­news​/­2016​/­08​/­usain​ -­bolt​-­gold​-­puma​-­olympic​-­spikes; “New Mondotrack WS Track Surface to Serve...