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Notes Notes to Introduction 1. Henry Vincent, The Story of the Commonweal (Chicago: W. B. Conkey, 1894), 50. 2. Shirley Plumer Austin, “The Downfall of Coxeyism,” Chautauquan 18, no. 4 (July 1894): 448–52. The causes of the 1893–1897 depression, including the railroad bubble are well described in Richard White, Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America (New York: W. W. Norton, 2011), 370–413; also, for ripple effects of rail collapse, see Douglas Steeples and David O.Whitten,Democracy in Desperation: The Depression of 1893 (Westport,CT: Greenwood Press,1998), 1–41; Charles Hoffman,The Depression of the Nineties: An Economic History (Westport,CT: Greenwood Press, 1970), 54–71. 3.Austin,“Downfall of Coxeyism,”448–52; Junius Henri Browne,“Succor for the Unemployed,” Harper’s Weekly 38 (January 6, 1894): 10. 4.America was both industrializing and incorporating at an unprecedented pace in the Gilded Age. Alan Trachtenberg notes, “By 1904, for example, about three hundred industrial corporations had won control of over more than two fifths of all manufacturing in the country, affecting operations of about four fifths of the nation’s industries”; see Alan Trachtenberg, The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age (New York: Hill & Wang, 1982), 4.An accurate national estimate of the total unemployed was difficult since no official government figures existed. Samuel Gompers estimated the unemployment at three million. In his account of the Panic, Frank B. Latham estimates four million; see Frank Brown Latham The Panic of 1893: A Time of Strikes, Riots, Hobo Camps, Coxey’s “Army,” Starvation, Withering Droughts, and Fears of Revolution (New York: F. Watts, 1971), 4. See also Hoffman, Depression of the Nineties, 109–10; Hoffman estimates that at its worst in the winter of 1893–1894,unemployment hovered at about 2.5 million,97–110; Statistical Abstract of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office,1895), 5. Catherine Reef, Poverty in America (New York: Facts on File, 2007), xv; Udo Sautter, Three Cheers for the Unemployed: Government and Unemployment before the New Deal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 14–46. See John A. Garraty, Unemployment in History: Economic Thought and Public Policy (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), 109n12. 6.A complicated taxonomy of the poor arose out of reform efforts in the Gilded Age.A survey of late nineteenth-century public attitudes toward the homeless can be found in Kenneth L. Kusmer, Down and Out and on the Road: The Homeless in American History (NewYork: Oxford University Press, 2002); see in particular his discussion of the “worthy poor,” 73–97. See also Nels Anderson, On Hobos and Homelessness (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), and Paul T. Rigenbach, Tramps and Reformers 1873–1916 (Westport,CT: Greenwood Press,1973),for excellent descriptions of tramp culture. 7. Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth (New York: Century Company, 1901), 4; Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought (Boston: Beacon Press, 1944), 210. 8. Embrey Bernard Howson, Jacob Sechler Coxey: A Biography of a Monetary Reformer (New York: Arno Press, 1982), 115–17, 120; Coxey, HBC Radio Story #98, “General Jacob S. Coxey’s 95th Birthday,”Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr.Papers,Massillon Museum,Massillon,OH,3;“Pennvenvon Window Glass Plant,” Pittsburgh People 2, no. 3 (March 1941): 4. 9. Guy McNeill Wells of the Cleveland Press and a Cleveland correspondent to the Wall Street Journal, untitled article about Coxey dated June 30, 1934, which appears in Jacob Coxey’s papers at the Massillon Museum in Massillon, Ohio; Coxey, HBC Radio Story # 98; “Pennvenvon Window Glass Plant,” 4. 120 N OT E S TO I N T RO D U C T I O N 10. Jacob Sechler Coxey, “The Coxey Plan,” Jacob Sechler Coxey Papers, Massillon Museum, Massillon, OH, 48–51. This volume also contains the transcript of Coxey’s appearance before the Ways and Means Committee on January 8, 1895, 19–44. Regarding the testimony Coxey provided in 1895 where he states the plan would result in $1.50 an hour wage, he earlier referred to $1.25 an hour in 1891 when he was interviewed by his local newspaper; see “Farewell to Poverty,” Massillon Evening Independent, December 20, 1891. The text of the plan also appears in several different places in the J. S. Coxey archives housed in the Massillon Museum; e.g., the Preamble of the Constitution and By-Laws of the Coxey Non-Interest Bearing Bond Club National Organization contains“The Coxey Non-Interest Bond Bill”and...


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