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Notes Preface I adopted the preface’s title, “The White Boy Listens to Gangsta Rap,” from James Baldwin , “The Black Boy Looks at the White Boy,” in his Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son (New York: Dell Publishing, 1961), 171–90. Regarding the term the “mark of crimi­ nality,” I used this term in a 2014 TEDxLSU presentation. 1. Introduced in 1991, Nielsen SoundScan was the first technology to track record sales electronically. Jeff Chang, Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-­ Hop Generation (New York: Picador, 2005). 2. Kheven Lee LaGrone, “From Minstrelsy to Gangsta Rap: The ‘Nigger’ as Commodity for Popu­lar Ameri­can Entertainment,” Journal of Af­ri­can Ameri­can Men 5 (2000): 117–31; S. Craig Watkins, Hip Hop Matters: Politics, Pop Culture, and the Struggle for the Soul of a Movement (Boston: Beacon Press, 2005). For an alternative perspective, see Kimberly Chabot Davis, Beyond the White Negro: Empathy and Anti-­ Racist Reading (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2014). 3. Office Space, directed by Mike Judge (Los Angeles: Twentieth-­ Century Fox Film Corporation, 1999). 4. See Eric King Watts, “Border Patrolling and ‘Passing’ in Eminem’s 8 Mile,” Critical Studies in Media Communication 22 (2005): 187–206. 5. See Dustin Bradley Goltz, “Frustrating the ‘I’: Critical Dialogic Reflexivity with Personal Voice,” Text and Performance Quarterly 31 (2011): 386–405; Charles E. Morris III, “Context’s Critic, Invisible Traditions, and Q ueering Rhetorical History,” Quarterly Journal of Speech 101 (2015): 225–43. 6. See David P. Terry, “Once Blind, Now Seeing: Problematics of Confessional Performance ,” Text and Performance Quarterly 26 (2006): 209–28. 7. SeeTipperGore,“Hate,Rape,andRap,”Wash­ing­tonPost,Janu­ary8,1990,­LexisNexis Academic. 128 / Notes 8. For narrative and analy­ sis on the Foster case, see Jennifer Asenas, et al., “Sav­ ing Kenneth Foster: Speaking with Others in the Belly of the Beast of Capital Punish­ ment,” in Communication Activism, vol. 3, Struggling for Social Justice Amidst Difference, ed.­ Lawrence R. Frey and Kevin M. Carragee (New York: Hampton Press, 2012), 264–90. 9. Ibid. Also see Erik Nielson and Michael Render (a.k.a. Killer Mike), “Rap’s Poetic (In)justice: Column,” USA Today, De­ cem­ ber 1, 2014, http://www.usatoday.com/story/ opinion/2014/11/28/poetic-­injustice-­rap-­supreme-­court-­lyrics-­violence-­trial-­column/ 19537391/. 10. See Jav’lin, “Walk with Me,” YouTube, February 8, 2007, https://www.youtube .com/watch?v=UaJdrxT8hiY. 11. See Mumia Abu-­ Jamal, Live from Death Row (New York: HarperCollins, 1996). 12. Asenas, et al., “Saving Kenneth Foster.” Introduction 1. On moral panic, see Stuart Hall, et al., Policing the Crisis: Mugging, the State, and Law and Order (Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 1978). 2. On mass incarceration at the close of the twentieth century, see Christian Parenti, Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis (Lon­don: Verso, 1999); Robert Perkinson, Texas Tough: The Rise of America’s Prison Empire (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010); Jonathan Simon, Governing through Crime: How the War on Crime Transformed Ameri­ can Democracy and Created a Culture of Fear (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007). On the prison-­ industrial complex, see Stephen John Hartnett, “The Annihilating Public Policies of the Prison-­Industrial Complex; or, Crime, Violence, and Punishment in an Age of Neoliberalism,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 11 (2008): 491–515; Eric Schlosser, “The Prison-­ Industrial Complex,” Atlantic Monthly, De­ cem­ ber 1998, http:// www.theatlantic.com/issues/98dec/pris2.htm; “What Is the PIC? What Is Abolition?” Critical Resistance, 2015, http://criti­calresistance.org/about/not-­so-­common-­language/. On the racialized dimensions thereof, see Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: New Press, 2010). On current incarceration rates, see Jennifer Warren, One in 100: Behind Bars in America (Wash­ing­ton, DC: Pew Charitable Trusts, 2008). 3. Gabriel J. Chin, “The New Civil Death: Rethinking Punishment in the Era of Mass Conviction,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 160 (2012): 1789–833. Also see Alexander, New Jim Crow; Alexia D. Cooper, Matthew R. Durose, and Howard N. Sny­ der, “Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010,” Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 22, 2014, http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail& iid=4987; Hartnett, “Annihilating Public Policies of the Prison-­ Industrial Complex”; Marc Mauer, Race to Incarcerate (New York: New Press, 2006); Jennifer Medina, “California Sheds Prisoners but Grapples with Courts,” New York Times, Janu...