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THE MARK OF CRIMINALITY RHETORIC, CULTURE, AND SOCIAL CRITIQUE Series Editor John Louis Lucaites Editorial Board Jeffrey A. Bennett Carole Blair Joshua Gunn Robert Hariman Debra Hawhee Claire Sisco King Steven Mailloux Raymie E. McKerrow Toby Miller Phaedra C. Pezzullo Austin Sarat Janet Staiger Barbie Zelizer THE MARK OF CRIMINALITY RHETORIC, RACE, and GANGSTA RAP in the WAR-­ON-­ CRIME ERA BRYAN J. MCCANN The University of Ala­ bama Press Tuscaloosa The University of Ala­ bama Press Tuscaloosa, Ala­bama 35487-­0380 Copyright © 2017 by the University of Ala­ bama Press All rights reserved. Inquiries about reproducing material from this work should be addressed to the University of Ala­ bama Press. Typeface: Garamond and Futura Cover image: Freedesignfile, vector hoody gangsters design set, CC BY 3.0, line art altered from original Cover design: David Nees Chapter 2 and portions of the conclusion are derived in part from an article posted in Critical Studies in Media Communication on August 24, 2012, available online: Chapter 4 is derived in part from an article posted in Cultural Studies ↔ Critical Methodologies on August 22, 2013, available online: content/13/5/408. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: McCann, Bryan J. Title: The mark of criminality : rhetoric, race, and gangsta rap in the war-on-crime era / Bryan J. McCann. Description: Tuscaloosa : The University of Alabama Press, [2017] | Series: Rhetoric, culture, and social critique | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2016045202| ISBN 9780817319489 (cloth : alk. paper) | ISBN 9780817391171 (e book) Subjects: LCSH: Gangsta rap (Music)--History and criticism. | African-Americans--Social conditions--History--20th century. | Crime in music. Classification: LCC ML3531 .M3 2017 | DDC 306.4/842490973--dc23 LC record available at For Ashley Especially today . . . ...