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Notes Introduction 1.During the second half of the eighteenth century,the Presbyterian Church was the second-largest denomination in America, and unlike the Congregational or Anglican churches,the Presbyterian Church was not largely confined to one section of the country. 2. By “Christendom,”here and elsewhere in the book, I am referring to the informal and voluntary presence of Christianity. 3. Arthur Lyon Cross, The Anglican Episcopate and the American Colonies (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902); Carl Bridenbaugh, Mitre and Sceptre: Transatlantic Faiths, Ideas, Personalities, and Politics, 1689–1775 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962); Kenneth R. Elliott, Anglican Church Policy, Eighteenth Century Conflict, and the American Episcopate (New York: Peter Lang Academic Publishers, 2011); and James B. Bell, A War of Religion: Dissenters, Anglicans, and the American Revolution (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). 4. Alan Heimert, Religion and the American Mind: From the Great Awakening to the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966); and Patricia U. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). 5.Nathan O.Hatch,The Sacred Cause of Liberty: Republican Thought and the Millennium in Revolutionary New England (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977); Ruth Bloch, Visionary Republic: Millennial Themes in American Thought, 1756–1800 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). 6. J. C. D. Clark, The Language of Liberty, 1660–1832: Political Discourse and Social Dynamics in the Anglo-American World (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994). See also Bell, A War of Religion. 132 / Notes 7.Fred J.Hood,Reformed America: The Middle and Southern States, 1783–1837,(Tuscaloosa : University of Alabama Press, 1980); Jon Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith; Christianizing the American People (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990). 8. Nathan O. Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989); A. Gregory Schneider, “From Democratization to Domestication : The Transitional Orality of the American Methodists Circuit Rider,” in Communication and Change in American Religious History, ed. Leonard I. Sweet (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1993), 141–64. 9. My work is indebted to the research of Jonathan Sassi and Robert H. Abzug. Focusing primarily on New England and the Congregationalist churches,Sassi and Abzug have attempted to counteract the reactionary and static view of the “Standing Order” churches. In A Republic of Righteousness: The Public Christianity of the Post-Revolutionary New England Clergy, 1783–1833 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), Sassi contends that after 1800 and the renowned elections of that year, the Congregationalist churches made earnest strides through interdenominational activities to Christianize America. In Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), Abzug reveals how the Standing Order churches in the North, moved by legalized religious pluralism, led the reform and religious voluntary movements of the nineteenth century. 10. Stephen Foster, The Long Argument: English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England Culture, 1570–1700 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). 11. Gideon Mailer,“Anglo-Scottish Union and John Witherspoon’s American Revolution ,” William and Mary Quarterly 67, no. 4 (October 2010): 709–46. For further discussion see Mailer’s Kirk to Congress: John Witherspoon’s American Revolution: Enlightenment and Religion from the Creation of Britain to the Founding of the United States (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press and the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 2017). 12. Peter C. Messer, Stories of Independence: Identity, Ideology, and History in Eighteenth -Century America (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2005), 30–32, 81– 82; Clark, The Language of Liberty, 154; Mark A. Noll, The Old Religion in a New World: The History of North American Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2002), 40–41, 45–47; James P. Boyd, Sacred Scripture, Sacred War: The Bible and the American Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press,2013),especially chps. 2, 3, and 4; Ernest Lee Tuveson, Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America’s Millennial Role (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968), chp. 5; and Keith L. Griffin, Revolution and Religion: American Revolutionary War and the Reformed Clergy (New York: Paragon House, 1994). 13. Hatch, The Sacred Cause of Liberty, 160, 156. 14. Thomas S. Kidd, God of Liberty: A Religious History of the American Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 2010). 15. David Waldstreicher, In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism , 1776–1820 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997); Benedict Anderson...