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Notes Preface 1. Ekholm 1955, 95. 2. Quoted in Chase 1971, 7. 3. Gold 1999, 37. 4. Much of the previous text also appears in Jett 2000b, by permission of David Robinson for the Conference of Latin Ameri­ canist Geographers. Introduction 1. On his fourth voyage in 1504, Columbus encountered, in a Native’s dwelling on Guadeloupe, an iron pot and the stern post of a European ship (not of his earlier abandoned Santa María); the party thought it was from the Canary Islands, “proof,” wrote Columbus biographer John Dyson (1991, 188), “that at least one ship had made it across the Atlantic before Columbus.” 2. Zerubavel 1992, 2. 3. See Jett 2000c. 4. Haslip-­ Viera, Ortiz de Montellano, and Barbour 1997, 437. 5. Whitfield 1996, 5; cf. Meltzer 1999, 56; Diamond 1997, 370. 6. Also old, however, were contrary notions of a foreign origin for New World cultures , e.g., that the Ameri­ can Indians derived from the “lost” tribes of Israel or from a variety of other Old World nations. 7. Stengel 2000, 44. 8. The great majority of the school’s literary production is available only in German . An exception is the translation Schmidt 1939. 9. Ratzel’s works and Ratzel student Alfred Hettner’s 1929 Der Gang der Kultur über die Erde influenced the thinking of the German Ameri­ can cultural geographer Carl O. Sauer and his many students; see Williams 2014; Speth 1999. 10. Herskovitz 1948, 505. On this school, see, e.g., Lucas 1978. 11. Carter 1988, 4; on Carter, see Jett 2007b; on the school, see Hunka 1972; Smith 2011; Crook 2011. 364 / Notes to Pages 6–22 12. See Jett 1983, 351–53. For overviews of the entire topic, see Jett 1993, 1998b, 2014. 13. Frost 1993, 46. 14. Ekholm 1955, 96. 15. Driver 1973, 166. 16. Sociologists and some others, following more strictly the term’s utilization in physics, confine use of the term “diffusion” to situations in which the innovation spreads through­out the originating or receiving society. Of course, today dispersal of ideas is frequently effected, very rapidly, via electronic and other media. 17. Parry 1981, 184. 18. See, e.g., Welch 1999. 19. Kahler 1965, 42; cf. Wood 2008, 10, also 92. 20. Geertz 1965, 93. 21. Poetics 25, 350 BC. 22. Meacham 1984–85, 91. 23. Terrell 1981, 251. 24. This would seem intuitively obvious (cf. Kroeber 1948, 413). Empirical support comes from psychological research: “Social learning (learning through observation or interaction with other individuals) is widespread in nature and is central to the remarkable success of humanity.” A test of subjects’ selection of social learning versus asocial trial and error and other innovative learning during problem-­ solving found that, “The winning strategy . . . relied nearly exclusively on social learning” (Rendell et al. 2010, 208). 25. Needham 1970, 70. 26. Bellwood 1997, 127. 27. Darjes, quoted in Piggott 1983, 4. Part I 1. Kehoe 2010, 205; Bricker 2009, 69–70. Chapter 1 1. Zerubavel 1992, 28. 2. Strabo mentioned that 120 ships sailed annually from the upper Red Sea port of Myos Hormos to India. The open-­ ocean passage from the Red Sea to the Malabar Coast took about forty days (see Fagan 2012, 125–26). 3. Lewis and Wigen 1997, ix. 4. Sarton 1993, 427. See also Sherner 2011, 281. 5. Zerubavel 1992, 74. An extremely rare exception, Johan Ruysch’s map of 1507, split the world in the middle of Asia, whose east­ ern part was depicted at the map’s left-­ hand (west­ ern) end. South America was shown as being to the east of Asia, with an ocean in between. 6. Lewis and Wigen 1997, 26. 7. Quoted in Sobel 1995, 165. 8. See MacDonald 1971, 14–15; Thirslund 1997, 61; Rafnsson 1997, 115; Wallace 2000, 228; Mowat 2000, 192. 9. During glacial periods, the environment of the Aleutians would have been less different from that of the present than would other areas of Beringia. 10. Speck 1970, 8. Certain other authors differ. Notes to Pages 22–35 / 365 11. See McCartney 1984, 122–23, 135. 12. See Sawatzky and Lehn 1976; Gardner 1986, 63; Mowat 1965, 62. 13. Parry 1981, 250. 14. Lewis 1994, 12–13. 15. See Dodd 1972, 33, 59–61; Heyen 1963, 70, 72; Lissau 1978; Irwin 1992, 44, 56. See also chapter 19. 16. See McGrail 1987, 262–64; Hyde 1947, 316–17. An estimate of the average velocity of Minoan ships with fair wind is higher: 9...