Part III. Motives for Ocean Crossings
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

III Motives for Ocean Crossings Objects which are usually the motives of our travels by land and by sea are of­ ten overlooked and neglected if they lie under our eye. —Pliny the Younger, first century AD As we have seen, accidental transoceanic drift voyages almost certainly took place and almost certainly left their marks on pre-­ Columbian New World cultures . However, most diffusionists propose much more than this: major cultural influences, as a consequence of intentional, likely of­ ten round-­ trip voyaging . Intentional voyages would be undertaken only in the presence of persuasive motivation. Inducements of vari­ ous kinds have been referred to, in passing, in previous chapters. Here, we may approach the question of motive more thoroughly and systematically by considering general reasons for travel and emigration as they existed, or are thought to have existed, before AD 1500. The kinds of motives manifested are divisible into what students of migration term “push” factors and “pull” factors, although in many cases these are simply two sides of the same coin and operate simultaneously. Movement is also conditioned by what information is available and by perceptions as to the costs of relocation. ...