In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

Acknowledgments The first acknowledgment must go to the late George F. Carter (1912–2004), whose influences were formative and fundamental, and whose early enthusiasm about this book project was gratifying. In addition to inspiring me with his publications, the late Thor Heyerdahl also made one or two observations on my early work. Stimulus came, too, from the many other individuals alluded to in this book’s dedication. In addition, the writings of the late Stephen Jay Gould provided wonderful inspiration in the form of insights, erudition, and grace of expression. The criti­ cal stimulation of presentations and discussions at vari­ ous scholarly conferences should be mentioned. In that connection, I acknowledge specifically the late Douglas Fraser, the late Thor Heyerdahl, Carol L. Riley, the late J. Charles Kelley, Campbell W. Pennington, the late Robert L. Rands, Paul Shao, the late William McGlone, Phillip M. Leonard, the late James P. Whittall Jr., the late Rollin W. Gillespie, Helen K. Crotty, the late Jon Polansky, John J. White III, James Leslie, Roslyn Strong, the late Joseph B. Mahan Jr., William and Nancy Yaw Davis, and Alison T. Stenger. I would like to thank Donald E. Vermeer for getting me involved as the Association of Ameri­ can Geographers representative to the Anthropology section of the Ameri­ can Association for the Advancement of Science, at whose 1995 conference the idea for this book began; the editor William Frucht for catalyzing the project; Alice Beck Kehoe (who recommended the University of Ala­ bama Press), Carl L. Johannessen, John L. Sorenson, and the late David H. Kelley for ideas, corrections, and strong intellectual support over the years; and my wife and fellow geographer Lisa Roberts Jett for forbearance and general support. Phil Hailes’s enthusiastic encouragement and helpful editorial suggestions are also appreciated, as are efforts on the part of Jeneen “Lucky” Becket; thanks, too, to Gunnar Thompson and Celia Heil. The late Louis Winkler made help­ ful xviii / Acknowledgments observations concerning astronomy, as did Jarew Manning concerning micro­ biology. Don Eckler alerted me to some useful maps, and a number of others drew my attention to relevant references. I thank Gillett G. Griffin, Frank Norick, and the late Daniel J. Crowley for their friendly but keen challenges to some of my diffusionist observations. James L. Guthrie suggested (and created) several sources and generally provided intellectual stimulation. Discussions with other cultural geographers not involved in transoceanic contact studies, in­clud­ing Frederick J. Simoons, the late Terry L. Jordan, the late Philip L. Wagner, and Charles F. Gritzner, were important stimulants as well, as were exchanges with myriad anthropologists/archaeologists, historians, art historians, botanists, human geneticists, oceanographers, and others, in­clud­ing lay­people. Among those from whom I learned much were my University of California , Davis, colleagues in anthropology and their graduate students—perhaps most from Dan Crowley and his student Katherine Brenda Branstetter—with whom my Department of Geography shared a floor during my early years there. I thank the personnel of the multifarious libraries, particularly those of the Davis, Berke­ ley, and San Diego campuses of the University of California; and those of Emory University, the University of Georgia, Case West­ ern Reserve University, the Cleveland Public Library, the Library of Congress, East Tennessee State University, and the Wash­ ing­ ton County (Virginia) Public Library. The private library of my stepfather the late John Ashbel Greene of Cleveland, Ohio, was most helpful regarding modern small-­ boat voyaging. Versions of portions of the text have appeared in earlier publications (acknowledged in the text) and are used herein with permission of the Conference of Latin Ameri­ canist Geographers, Odyssey Verlag Wien, and Pre-­Columbiana. Acknowledged with thanks, too, are the vari­ ous entities and individuals who accorded permission to reproduce illustrations. Dean Barr provided photo services . Initial editing was done by Tim Yohn, followed by copyediting on the part of Anna Painter under the supervision of Paul Farrell. The interest and encouragement of Joseph B. Powell, then of the University of Ala­ bama Press, and the enthusiasm of the thoughtful reviewers Kent Mathewson and Daniel W. Gade, resulted in acquisition of the manuscript by the press. In addition, the work has benefited from the editorial and other efforts of Daniel Waterman, editor in chief, and the helpful direct editorial oversight of the press’s Wendi Schnaufer. Dawn Hall served as my meticulous copyeditor and Bonny McLaughlin as indexing coordinator. Robert and Sharon Wilson kindly provided a generous subvention toward production costs. ANCIENT Ocean Crossings Figure...