List of Illustrations
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Illustrations I.1. Knowledge of the newly found islands     xx 1.1. Map of the North Atlantic Ocean     19 1.2. Map of the North Pacific Ocean     20 1.3. Conjectural reconstruction of the globe as conceived by Krates of Mallos     26 3.1. Generalized map (Mercator projection) of the principle surface ocean currents     33 3.2. Map of the Pacific Basin     34 8.1. Ancient funerary wheeled-­ animal pottery figurines     87 10.1. Drawing of the Newport Tower, Rhode Island     116 14.1. Ship depicted in a fresco circa sixth century AD in Cave II, Ajanta, India     156 14.2. Relief carving of an outrigger ship, Borobudur, Java     157 16.1. Reconstruction drawing of a small Roman merchantman (corbita)     176 16.2. Diagrams of traditional Pacific hull and sailing-­ rig types     178 17.1. Crescentic craft     184 17.2. Depiction on a Moche pottery vessel of sail-­ less seagoing double-­ decked bulrush-­ bundle raft-­ boat     185 17.3. Ra II     186 17.4. Schematic drawings of a bamboo sailing-­ raft carrying a Chinese lugsail, Taiwan     188 17.5. Japanese woodcut of a nine-­ bamboo sailing-­ raft from Tai-­ tung, Taiwan, 1803     189 17.6. Schematic drawing of a traditional seagoing balsa-­ log sailing-­ raft     190 18.1. Conjectural reconstruction of Saint Brendan’s hide-­ covered lathwork Irish sailing currach     194 19.1. Schematic drawings of Hōkūle‘a, the Polynesian Voyaging Society’s replica traditional two-­ masted Polynesian double voyaging canoe     199 19.2. Twentieth-­ century traditional Micronesian wa serak or outrigger voyaging canoe     202 19.3. Medium-­sized bheddi fishing boat and cargo carrier, in Karachi, Pakistan     203 20.1. Early twentieth-­ century Jiangsu freighter     207 20.2. Egyptian Nile ship of before 2000 BC     211 20.3. Bas-­ relief at Deir el-­ Bahari, Thebes, Egypt, depicting the loading, at Punt, of two ships sent down the Red Sea     212 20.4. Reconstruction of a ship with a steering oar depicted in a Minoan mural     214 20.5. Conjectural reconstruction of a Phoenician sailing ship     214 20.6. Lengthwise cutaway reconstruction drawing of the Skuldelev 1 Norse wreck     216 21.1. Diagram of the traditional Omani sewn-­ plank boom Sohar     229 22.1. Central Caroline Islands conceptual sidereal compass     244 24.1. Map showing land areas of South­ east Asia and north­ ern Australia at vari­ ous Late Pleistocene–Holocene sea stands     261 26.1. Moche V terra-­ cotta effigy vessel     290 27.1. Drawing of maize ears held by female fig­ ures sculpted in stone on pre-­ 1492 Hindu temples     307 27.2. Drawings of pre-­ Columbian sculptures purportedly depicting pineapples in south­ ern Asia     309 30.1. Portrait pot displaying one-­ eyed male ruler with Caucasoid-­ appearing features, Moche culture, Peru     334 30.2 Portrait pot displaying Caucasoid-­ appearing features, Chimu culture, Peru     334 30.3. Mesoamerican plumbate ceramic incense burner depicting the face of the deity Quetzalcoatl/Kukulkan     335 30.4. Pre-­ Columbian terra-­ cotta portrait head displaying Negroid features, Veracruz, Mexico     336 30.5. Depictions of what appear to be Old World physiognomies in Olmec sculptures of Mexico’s Theocratic Formative period     336 ...


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