Contents
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Contents List of Illustrations     ix Preface     xi Acknowledgments     xvii Introduction     1 PART I INTELLECTUAL OBSTACLES TO THE NOTION OF EARLY TRANSOCEANIC CONTACTS     13 1. The Myth of the Oceans as Uncrossable Barriers     15 2. Before Columbus, the Earth was “Flat”? Flat Wrong     27 3. Conveyor Belts of the Seas: The Prevailing Winds and Currents     32 4. Staying Alive While Crossing the Deep     43 5. Getting the Drift: Accidental Voyages and Discoveries     48 6. No Plague in the Land? The Alleged Ameri­ can Absence of Old World Communicable Diseases     57 7. Why Most Domesticated Animals and Plants Stayed Home     71 8. Low Tech: The Absences of Many Old World Inventions in the New World     80 9. More on the Whys of Technological Absences     95 10. The Mystery of the Missing Artifacts     103 11. The Supposed Silence of the His­ tori­ cal Record     120 12. The “Silent” His­ tori­ cal Record Speaks: Documents Possibly Describing Pre-­ Columbian Crossings     130 PART II MEANS: THE TYPES AND AVAILABILITIES OF WATERCRAFT AND NAVIGATION     143 13. Some Nautical Myths and Issues     145 14. The Myth of the Inadequacy of Pre-­ Columbian Watercraft     152 15. It’s Earlier Than You Think: The Antiquity of Seagoing Watercraft     167 16. Have Sail, Will Travel: The Origins, Types, and Capabilities of Sails and Rigs     173 17. Products of the Paleolithic: Rafts      182 18. Out of the Ice Age: Skin Boats of the North     192 19. Mesolithic and Neolithic Legacies: Dugouts and Lashed-­ Plank Watercraft     196 20. Hulled Wooden Ships East and West: The Junk and the Nao     206 21. Modern Experimental Voyages: The Empirical Approach     217 22. Asea without a Compass: Celestial Way-­ Finding     233 23. A Matter of Course: Seamarks and Haven-­ Finding     246 PART III MOTIVES FOR OCEAN CROSSINGS     257 24. Repellants     259 25. Attractants     266 PART IV OPPORTUNITY FOR EXCHANGE: CONCRETE DEMONSTRATIONS OF CONTACTS     283 26. Shared Physical Materials, Domesticated Animals, and Diseases     285 27. Shared Cultigens: From New into Old (World)     298 28. Cultivated Plants: Old World Cropping Up in the New     314 29. Tobacco, Coca, and Cannabis: The Mummies Speak, but the Scientists Stand Mute     320 30. Old World Faces in New World Places     329 31. Incongruous Genes in America     340 PART V CONCLUSIONS     357 32. Mission Possible: Crossings Occurred     359 Notes     363 Works Cited     399 Index     461 ...