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NOTES Introduction Epigraph note: Riddle 8, lines 1b–2a; Krapp and Dobbie, 3:185. Riddle numbers follow the Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records. 1. Tolkien’s words chime with Percy Bysshe Shelley’s sentiment in A Defence of Poetry, where, with regard to Christian verse, only the quasi-“heretical” poems of Dante Alighieri and John Milton merit high praise (62–64). 2. For an excellent close reading of the exile theme in Juliana, see Olesiejko, “Treasure and Spiritual Exile in Old English Juliana.” I disagree only with this article’s representation of heroic diction as that which belongs principally to “oral pagan culture” (67). 3. See Ó Carragáin, Ritual and the Rood: Liturgical Images and the Old English Poems of the Dream of the Rood Tradition. The Ruthwell Cross also embodies hybrid oral, written, and ritual signification. Ó Carragáin explains that the panels of the Ruthwell Cross would have been read and contemplated in relationship to the course of the sun and hours of prayer (62, 280–82). For example, the image of “Christ acclaimed by two animals,” was directly illuminated at sunset, as if a reminder of night’s approach. This particular panel refers to Psalms 90–91, chanted in darkness at Compline, which emphasizes the protection that God extends to the faithful. The appearance of the associated panel on the Ruthwell Cross calls attention to the Cross’s apotropaic power (282). Fear and desire for protection aptly characterize The Dream of the Rood’s narrator, having been awakened in the middle of the night by a Cross. 4. Among Anglo-Saxonists, the written oral-connected idiom has received more scholarly attention than these other forms of signification. Overviews of written oral tradition have been discussed in depth by Renoir, A Key to Old Poems , Foley, Traditional Oral Epic and Immanent Art, and Amodio, Writing the Oral Tradition. The aptly named Vox intexta: Orality and Textuality in the Middle Ages, ed. Doane and Pasternak, showcases a variety of analyses of oral and literate fusions . Chapter 7 of Ó Carragáin, Ritual and the Rood explores intersections of verse and ritual. 5. For example, Lord writes concerning South Slavic oral tradition, “The theme, even though it be verbal, is not any fixed set of words, but a grouping of ideas” (Singer of Tales 69). Chapter 1. Hybrid Poetics in Old English Verse 1. See Magoun, “The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Poetry,” 454 and 460. Of course, a transition period occurred when missionaries introduced writing to Anglo-Saxons. What is problematic is framing writing and Christianity as “new” throughout the Christian Anglo-Saxon period (ca. 590–1066). Oral theorists have also critiqued Magoun’s characterization of Anglo-Saxon poetry as so highly formulaic that it cannot express foreign (i.e., Christian) concepts, but it can produce a substantial number of epithets for rulers, whether earthly or celestial (457). 2. For example, Renoir, A Key to Old Poems, 60–62. In contrast, Amodio, Writing the Oral Tradition, 22. 3. In the same collection Sarah Larratt Keefer calls attention to hybrid poetics whendescribingageneralstylisticpreferenceinOldEnglishversefor“lettingdisparate and discrete strands of ideas lie together in tension” (“Either/And” 180). Yet, like Orchard, she writes that these seemingly “disparate and discrete,” but interwoven ideologies are Christian (i.e., Latinate, written, new) and heroic (i.e., Germanic, oral, old). 4.Forexample,Ong’sdevelopmentalmodelisreflectedinthesubtitleofKatherine O’Brien O’Keeffe’s Visible Song: Transitional Literacy in Old English Verse. 5.SeeOng,Orality andLiteracy,11, and“WritingIsaHumanizingTechnology.” 6. Foley, in his later scholarship on Ancient Greek and Old English poems, switched from “oral-derived” to “oral-connected.” 7. Amodio in Writing the Oral Tradition addresses the continuities and discontinuities in Old English and Middle English hybrid oral-written traditions. 8. See, for example, Bredehoft, Authors, Audiences, and Old English Verse. 9. Many have postulated that Anglo-Saxon poets composed verse for audiences , viva voce and in situ, long before and long after the introduction of writ162 · Notes to Pages 4–10 ing, even though ethnographic records that describe the fundamentals of a living oral tradition in Anglo-Saxon England are lacking. These fundamentals include performance styles, how poets learned their tradition, who became poets, who became audiences, in what social settings poets created their works, and which genres were valued and by whom. Assuming the presence of a widespread oral tradition, Opland sketches out such information in Anglo-Saxon Oral Poetry on the basis of etymologies, (presumably idealized) accounts of Germanic poets, and comparative evidence from the Xhosa tradition. Frank critiques Opland...


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