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267 Introduction 1. See Becker, Art Worlds; Bourdieu, Field of Cultural Production; Taylor, World City Network. 2. Tsing, Friction. 3. Appadurai, Modernity at Large; Hannerz, Transnational Connections. 4. Diagne, “La Leçon de Musique.” 5. Axt and Sy, Bildende Kunst der Gegenwart in Senegal, discuss the details of these institutions ’ histories (35–39, 71–72). The Manufacture Nationale de Tapisserie, inaugurated in 1966, was renamed the Manufactures Sénégalaises des Arts Décoratifs. The art school has changed names several times since its establishment: École des Arts (1961–1971), Institut National des Arts (1971–1977), École Nationale des Beaux-Arts (1977–present). Throughout this text I refer to the art school by the short form, the École des Arts. 6. Diouf, “Senegalese Murid Trade.” 7. On the global art world, see Belting, Buddensieg, and Weibel, The Global Contemporary ; Bydler, Global Artworld, Inc.; Lee, Forgetting the Art World. 8. United Nations Statistics Division, Demographic Yearbook, /unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dybnat.htm; United Nations World Urbanization Prospects , 9. Melly, “Inside-Out Houses,” 40. 10. Ibid., 37–39. 11. Roy and Ong, Worlding Cities, 13. Mamadou Diouf has reminded me that Gayatri Spivak used the term “worlding” in her discussion of colonial others before urbanists took up the word for their purposes. Simone, “On the Worlding of African Cities,” speaks of worlding as the effects of global processes of scalar recomposition. 12. Cena and Tinguad, Ousmane Sow. 13. My sincere thanks to Susan Kart for sharing her research about the Museum of Modern Art’s acquisition of Dimé’s sculpture Femme au Long Cou. For more, see Kart, “From Direct Carving.” 14. O’Brien, “Saint Mor Faye.” NOTES Notes to Pages 4–21 268 15. Harney, In Senghor’s Shadow; Roberts and Roberts, Saint in the City. 16. Hardt and Negri, Empire. 17. See Belting, Buddensieg, and Weibel, The Global Contemporary; Bydler, Global Artworld , Inc.; and Lee, Forgetting the Art World. 18. Diouf, Arts Plastiques; Ebong, “Negritude”; Harney, In Senghor’s Shadow; Snipe, Arts and Politics in Senegal; Sylla, Arts Plastiques et l’État. 19. Pieterse, “Grasping the Unknowable,” 20. 20. De Boeck and Plissart, Kinshasa; Enwezor et al., Under Siege; Malaquais, “Cosmopolis ”; Mbembe and Nuttall, “Johannesburg: The Elusive Metropolis.” 21. Pieterse, “Grasping the Unknowable,” 24. 22. Studies focused on the visual and the urban include Roberts and Roberts, Saint in the City; Weiss, Street Dreams and Hip Hop Barbershops. Scholarship on music in urban Africa includes Feld, Jazz Cosmopolitanism in Accra; Shipley, Living the Hiplife; White, Rumba Rules. 23. See Grabski, “Visual Experience in Urban Africa.” This line of analysis builds on that special issue’s theme, which brought together bodies of scholarship on urban studies and visual culture. See also Jay and Ramaswamy, Empires of Vision; Mirzoeff, Visual Culture Reader; Rogoff, “Studying Visual Culture.” 24. Pieterse, “Grasping the Unknowable,” 28. 25. Currid, Warhol Economy; Lloyd, Neo-Bohemia. 26. Cissé, “Nouvelle Demarche de Tine,” 2. According to the CIA World Factbook, the exchange rate in 1998 was 590 CFA to US$1. 27. See the African Development Report, /document/african-development-report-1998-8780; and World Development Indicators, -indicators-1998. 28. Viyé Diba, interview with author, February 12, 2011. 1. Making the City’s Scene 1. “Sénégal: Wasis Diop ‘Expose’ Joe Ouakam,” May 10, 2010, /stories/201005101807.html. 2. Eighteen years elapsed between two of his solo exhibitions in Dakar, one at Galerie des Quatre Vents in 1992 and the other, “Paa Bi,” in 2010. Following the two 2010 exhibitions discussed in this chapter, Ouakam’s work was exhibited again at Raw Material Company in Dakar in 2013–2014. His work has been featured in international exhibitions, including “Seven Stories about Modern Art in Africa” during Africa 95, Documenta 13 (Kassel) in 2012, and “Word! Word? Word! Issa Samb and the Undecipherable Form” at the Office for Contemporary Art in Oslo, Norway, in 2013. Read as a lineage, the collective power of exhibitions, film, and media coverage demonstrates that visibility is productive of more visibility. Notes to Pages 22–47 269 3. Cissokho, “Paa Bi.” 4. In addition to organizing their own shows, artists organize and contribute to each other’s exhibitions. For example, El Hadji Sy has curated shows for Mamadou Wade and Seydou Barry; Fodé Camara has been the scenographer for many colleagues’ exhibitions; and Viyé Diba wrote...


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