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297 GLOSSA RY absolute pitch The ability to identify a tone’s pitch without an external reference pitch. accelerando To gradually increase speed. additive process The expansion and contraction of small musical cells or modules. amplitude A measurement of the intensity of sound pressure, of which loudness (or volume) is the subjective assessment. anacrusis One or more unstressed notes at the beginning of a piece or phrase. Also known as an “upbeat.” anthrophony Sounds produced by humans. antiphonal song Two or more birds singing in alternation. arpeggio, arpeggiated The notes of a chord sounded in succession rather than simultaneously. biomarker An indicator of the condition of a living organism. biophony The “voices of living organisms.”1 call, call notes Usually short, simple avian vocalizations associated with general maintenance activities. canon A polyphonic texture created by two or more voices performing the same or similar material at a temporal, spatial, or intervallic distance. 298 Glossary chimeric melody A melody formed by linking parts of two different melodies. coda A short passage at the end of a piece of music that brings the work to a conclusion. complex tone A sound with broadband energy in multiple frequencies. compound melodic line A melody where separate melody lines are suggested by means of large pitch jumps (also referred to as implied polyphony or melodic segregation). conspecific A living organism belonging to the same species as another. continuous singer A bird who sings more or less nonstop. contour The upward and downward pattern of a melody. contrary motion When one line moves up and the other down. counterpoint A texture formed by two or more individual melodic lines. countersinging Two birds singing back and forth at one another. crescendo A gradual increase in volume. crystallized song The culmination of song development (after subsong and plastic song). cultural transmission The passage of traits across generations of the same population outside of biological mechanisms of inheritance. dawn chorus A period of high singing activity for a number of species of birds just before and at sunrise. day song, daytime song Equivalent to diurnal song. decrescendo A gradual decrease in volume. diatonic Based on a seven-note major or minor scale or mode that spans an octave (as opposed to chromatic and microtonal intervals). discontinuous singing A bird who sings with an interphrase interval that is as long as or longer than the phrase itself. distributional analysis The labeling of phrases with letters and/ or numbers to assist in determining how they are delivered and organized. Glossary 299 diurnal song A song delivered during the daytime, including the dawn chorus (although the songs or phrases could differ between the dawn chorus and the rest of the daytime). dominant The fifth note of the Western major or minor scale. When a chord is built on this scale degree, it is a dominant chord. duet A coordinated vocal performance by two birds of the same species, whether synchronous, alternating, or overlapping. eighth note A note that endures for half the value of a quarter note and twice the value of a sixteenth note. ensemble song In pied butcherbirds, two or more birds singing together, either simultaneously or alternately. ethologist A researcher who studies animal behavior with an emphasis on the behavioral patterns in natural environments. eventual variety A pattern of singing in which a bird repeats a phrase multiple times before switching to another. fast Fourier transform An algorithm used to compute a sonogram (also FFT). formal song A discontinuous solo song of a pied butcherbird (usually sung nocturnally). frequency A physical measurement of the number of cycles per second of a sound. One vibration per second equals 1 Hertz (Hz); 1,000 Hz equal 1 kHz. Pitch is the subjective assessment of frequency. fundamental The lowest frequency at which a sound vibrates. gap-fill The action of returning to notes that have been omitted in a sequence after a leap. geophony Noncreature sounds, like thunder, rain, and wind.2 glissando A gliding effect performed by sliding one or more fingers rapidly over piano keys or harp strings. harmonic overtones The sound energy produced simultaneously with and above a complex tone. The first harmonic in a complex tone is the fundamental. 300 Glossary hocket A sequential duet where singers alternate turns so rapidly and with such precision that a single melodic line is formed. imitation Imitation, or mimicry, is the ability to reproduce, to a varying degree, sounds other than those of the species in question, including environmental sounds. immediate...


Subject Headings

  • Birdsongs -- Australia.
  • Butcherbirds -- Behavior -- Australia.
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