Notes
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notes INTRODUCTION 1. My account follows that of Espinosa, Epidemic Invasions. For the definitive account of the disease’s impact in the American South, see Humphreys, Yellow Fever and the South. 2. “The Fever Quarantine,” New York Times, November 2, 1897. 3. “Yellow Fever Epidemic: State Troops Called Out to Protect the Railroad Property at Jackson, Miss.,” New York Times, September, 19, 1897. 4. “An Incendiary Fever Mob,” New York Times, September 25, 1897. 5. “Yellow Fever Decreasing: A Negro Lynched Near New Orleans for Evading Quarantine ,” New York Times, October 17, 1897. 6. See Duffy, Sanitarians; Novak, People’s Welfare. 7. On the history of the PHS, see particularly Mullan, Plagues and Politics. 8. Hacker, Divided Welfare State; Gottschalk, Shadow Welfare State; Mettler, Submerged State. 9. In a 2015 poll that asked respondents about their views of eight federal agencies, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the highest favorability rating, beating out both NASA and the Department of Defense. See Pew Research Center, “Most ViewtheCDCFavorably;VA’sImageSlips,”PewResearchCenter,January22,2015,http:// www.people-press.org/2015/01/22/most-view-the-cdc-favorably-vas-image-slips/. 10. Scholars such as Paul Starr, Jacob Hacker, Alan Derickson, Daniel M. Fox, Marie Gottschalk, Beatrix Hoffman, and Jill Quadagno have offered nuanced analyses of the role of political institutions, interest groups such as the American Medical Association and organized labor, and political ideology in shaping America’s unique health system. See Starr, Social Transformation and Remedy and Reaction; Hacker, Divided Welfare State and “Historical Logic of National Health Insurance”; Derickson, Health Security for All; Fox, Health Policies, Politics; Gottschalk, Shadow Welfare State; Hoffman, Health Care for Some and Wages of Sickness; Quadagno, One Nation, Uninsured. David Blumenthal and James Morone have highlighted the role of the presidency in making health policy , while major works by Theodore Marmor, Jonathan Oberlander, and Laura Katz Olson have examined the Medicare and Medicaid programs that emerged out of earlier failed plans for national health insurance. See Blumenthal and Morone, Heart of Power; Marmor, Politics of Medicare; Oberlander, Political Life of Medicare; Olson, Politics of Medicaid. 11. Because previous work on public health has been grounded in the field of history , questions about political context, the role of institutions, and why particular policy outcomes occurred have been far less prominent than they are in the literature on national insurance policy. Nonetheless, several important works have explored themes that overlap with those discussed in this book. Fitzhugh Mullan, Elizabeth Etheridge, and Michael Stobbe have written excellent studies of the United States PHS, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Office of the Surgeon General, while 206 : NOTES TO PAGES 3–6 George Rosen and John Duffy have written high-quality general histories of international and American public health. See Mullan, Plagues and Politics; Etheridge, Sentinel for Health; Stobbe, Surgeon General’s Warning; Rosen, History of Public Health; Duffy, Sanitarians. These works have illuminated key aspects of the history of American public health and have informed my research in fundamental ways. 12. Starr, Social Transformation; Derickson, Health Security for All. Starr devotes an entire chapter to public health in his classic study of American medicine. Focused on policies dealing with individual medicine, Derickson’s groundbreaking work is consistently attentive to the work of public health theorists and officials. Both works have substantially influenced my analysis. 13. Richard Bensel defines APD as “the study of the processes through which political institutions have been reproduced or changed in the United States.” APD, Bensel writes, “involves the longitudinal investigation of such institutions, including explanations of their origin, the conditions sustaining their existence (i.e., reproducibility), and the reasons for their demise.” Bensel, “Tension,” 104–105. 14. Orren and Skowronek, Search for American Political Development. 15. In important ways, my approach follows the polity-centered approach of Theda Skocpol and the bureaucracy-focused approach of Daniel Carpenter. See Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers; Carpenter, Reputation and Power and Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy. On the policy-making and coalition-building roles of elites, see Grossmann, Artists of the Possible. 16. Bensel, Sectionalism and American Political Development; Sanders, Roots of Reform. 17. See Katznelson, Geiger, and Kryder, “Limiting Liberalism”; Lieberman, “Race, Institutions” and Shifting the Color Line; Quadagno, Color of Welfare. 18. For the classic analysis of the role of Southern Democrats in national government in guaranteeing white supremacy and local autonomy, see Key, Southern Politics. See also Katznelson, Geiger, and Kryder, “Limiting Liberalism.” 19...