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233 introduction 1. The “old English writer” is Sir Thomas Browne (1605–1682), who wrote about America in his encyclopedia Pseudodoxia Epidemica. To exemplify the fact that the world is divided into time zones, he notes that “the Huntsmen are up in America, and they are already past their first sleep in Persia.” Woolf’s hunt and sleep metaphors are thus inspired by Browne’s writing. 2. Although Glaspell’s reference in The Road to the Temple to her first notice of O’Neill has often been interpreted as the evidence that she discovered him, this legend has long been debunked. O’Neill was introduced to the Provincetown Players by Hutchins Hapgood and Neith Boyce through Terry Carlin. O’Neill’s father was the most famous actor in America, so his son was known even before he made a name for himself. In his 2014 biography on Eugene O’Neill, Robert M. Dowling writes: “Most of the Players knew Carlin from Greenwich Village, but O’Neill was a curiosity, ‘more unknown then than he’s famed now,’ one of them remembered. They referred to him as the ‘son of James O’Neill,’ the brilliant actor who’d sold his talent for the easy money of costume romances and melodrama” (5). 3. In her 1995 American Woman Playwrights, 1900–1950, Yvonne Shafer notes that “[a]lthough . . . Glaspell was raised in the nineteenth century tradition that idealized patriotism, piety, competition, progress, and respectability, she was quite a rebel” (36). Linda Ben-Zvi concludes her 2005 biography by quoting John Dos Passos, a friend of Glaspell in Provincetown, who, in a letter, urges Mary Vorce to write the biography of Glaspell, a week after her death in 1948: “Write a new Road to the Temple . . . this time about Susan’s life would be n o t e s • Notes 234 wonderful. She was an adventurer, a rebel . . . It would make a great story” (397). In her introduction to Susan Glaspell: New Directions in Critical Inquiry published in 2006, Martha C. Carpentier declares: “Always a rebel, [Glaspell] broke from gender-norms to attend University at the turn-of-the-century, became a journalist , and by 1901 had dedicated herself to a life in writing” (2). In “America’s Great Woman Dramatist: Susan Glaspell” published in 1930 in The World, Eugene Solow describes Glaspell’s protagonists as “the most distinguished achievement in character creation in the entire range of American drama” and notes, “They are rebels, every one of them.” In 1990, Barbara Ozieblo concludes her article “Rebellion and Rejection” by affirming that “Glaspell’s protagonists do rebel” (74). “[Glaspell’s] central characters are usually passionate rebels against the conservatism of society,” Carpentier writes in 2001 in The Major Novels of Susan Glaspell (6). In her 2004 Women Pulitzer Playwrights, Carolyn C. Craig identifies Glaspell’s female leads as “rebellious heroin[es]” (51). 4. The dates in parentheses correspond to the years of the first performances of the plays for those that were actually produced and to the year of writing for Springs Eternal. In order to avoid a profusion of footnotes and for the sake of readability, the page references to Susan Glaspell’s plays will appear in parentheses at the end of the sentence in which the citation appears. The number in parentheses will refer to the page of Linda Ben-Zvi and J. Ellen Gainor’s Susan Glaspell: The Complete Plays (2010), which brings together Susan Glaspell’s plays with the exception of Wings, references to which will thus appear in parenthetical notes. 5. To my knowledge, Linda Ben-Zvi and Noelia Hernando-Real are the only two scholars who have made a passing reference to Wings in their works (BenZvi , Susan Glaspell 25; Hernando-Real, “Staging the Power of Place” 188). 6. On account of the Provincetown Players’ early policy concerning the critics , who had to pay for their seats, few reviews of Glaspell’s early plays were written . Although a good number of articles were written for her later contemporary productions, the critics mainly commented on the themes dealt with in the plays and, apart from their appreciations of the actors’ performances, rarely commented on the actual staging. Also, very few pictures of the performances can be found; similarly, very few notes by the directors of the plays have survived. Due Notes 235 to the scarcity of information concerning the staging of the dramatist’s works, I decided to concentrate on the play scripts. chapter one 1. In “‘Murder, She...


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