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151 index Aars, Jacob, 22 Adelsohn, Alf, 10 age differences in behaviors, 58 in career ambitions, 42, 43, 52, 58 in political engagement, 46–48 Agrarian Party (Sweden), 8 Ahlbäck Öberg, Shirin, 11 altruism, 7 ambition defining, 23–25 evolutionary perspective, 4–6 philosophical views, 6–7 See also career ambitions; political ambition theory ambitious politicians behaviors, 1, 20–21, 55, 56–61, 119 characteristics and attitudes, 113–115 criteria, 27–30 early engagement, 46–48 effectiveness, 114–115 in European parliaments, 102–105, 103(table), 104(table), 112–113, 114 gender differences, 5, 41, 43, 52 interest in constituencies, 56–57 need for, 2–3 negative views of, 8, 27, 60, 107, 118 in party-centered systems, 1–2, 56 party membership, 39–40, 50–52 public perceptions of, 7, 8, 118 reputations, 7, 56, 58–59, 99, 105, 117, 133n3 research questions and analysis, 12–13, 13(figure) socioeconomic resources, 39, 40–45, 43(table), 46(table) as strategic actors, 1, 38, 39–40, 99 in the United States, 1, 7–8, 10–11, 82, 112, 122 See also career ambitions; political ambition theory; Swedish MPs: career ambitions of American Political Science Association, 115 Aristotle, 6–7, 133n4 audience democracy, 59 Augustine, St., 6 Barrling Hermansson, Katarina, 40, 51 Belgium, ambitious politicians, 102, 103(table), 104(table) Bergström, Sven, 58 Bildt, Carl, 10 Black, Gordon S., 19, 104 Bodström, Lennart, 115 Bohman, Gösta, 9 Borchert, Jens, 16, 17 Brady, Henry E., 39, 43–45, 52 British Parliament, 63, 64, 83–84, 131–132n1 Bullitt, William C., 14 Burke, Edmund, 61, 64, 113, 130n11 cabinet ministers appointments, 29, 128n1 status, 80, 91 women, 9, 29, 128n1, 129n4 Cain, Bruce, 63 candidate-centered systems, 3–4, 7, 67, 105 candidates. See politicians career ambitions age differences, 42, 43, 52, 58 assessing, 22–23, 118–120, 133n1(ch. 8) commitment to, 13, 23–24, 29–30, 34–35, 54 defining, 23–25, 120–121 difficulty of objective, 13, 24, 29 factors in, 105–110, 108(table) future research on, 120–123 goal orientation, 13, 24 goals, 18, 119–120 long-term approach, 13, 24, 27–28, 29–30, 85, 120 moving to higher-status institutions, 24, 28–29 152 index career ambitions, continued national variations, 101, 102–111, 114 potential conflicts with party loyalty, 1, 71–72, 98 of professional politicians, 44, 52–54, 81–82 short-term, 87–89, 120 types, 18, 20 See also ambitious politicians; Swedish MPs: career ambitions of career attainment ambition and, 83–90, 97–100, 98(table), 117 of ambitious Swedish MPs, 84–91, 95–100, 96(table), 98(table), 101, 113–114 in business, 126–127n3 gender differences, 97–98 measuring, 90–91 research on, 83 speed, 84, 85–87, 99, 132n3 Carlsson, Ingvar, 128n1 Center Party (Sweden), 51(table), 87, 95 Christian Democrats (Sweden), 8, 9, 51(table) churches, 44 Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM), 39, 43–45 civil society, 44 commitment to career ambitions, 13, 23–24, 29–30, 34–35, 54 Congress. See US Congress Conservative Party (Sweden), 8 leaders, 9, 10 potential career politicians, 50, 51, 51(table) Contract with America, 131n16 corruption, 105, 133n3 Cox, Gary W., 4 cultures party, 40, 50–51 political, 106–107, 109, 114, 117–118, 133n4 CVM. See Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) Davidsson, Lars, 56, 63 democracy audience, 59 middle class and, 133n4 representative, 2–3, 59, 112–113, 118, 122 See also electoral systems; party-centered democratic systems Downs, Anthony, 15, 16 education levels political participation and, 41–42, 43 of Swedish MPs, 41, 73, 109–110 See also socioeconomic resources egalitarian values, 107, 109, 110, 114, 117–118. See also equality Ehrenhalt, Alan, 114 electoral systems, 3, 63, 105–106, 109, 133n3 equality evolutionary perspective, 4–5 gender, 107 relationship to ambition, 109 social trust and, 117–118 See also egalitarian values Erlander, Tage, 10, 22, 90, 128n11, 132nn5–6 Esiasson, Peter, 44, 90 European Parliament selection of Swedish members, 29, 128n2 status, 28 European parliaments, ambitious politicians in, 102–105, 103(table), 104(table), 112–113, 114 See also British Parliament; Riksdag European Union (EU) commissioners, 29, 91 positions in organization, 28, 30–31, 91, 102, 103 support for, 103 evolution, 4–5 Exit Riksdagen, 47, 50, 90, 91, 93 feminist political ambition theory, 19–20 Fenno, Richard F., 62–63, 67 Ferejohn, John, 63 Fichtelius, Erik, 9 Fiorina, Morris, 63 Fowler, Linda L., 20 France, ambitious politicians, 102, 103(table), 104(table) Freud...


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