restricted access Women’s Peace Festival, Mercantile Hall, Philadelphia, June 2, 1876
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Women’s Peace Festival, 1876 211 2. Mann had traveled to Europe in 1843. In Prussia, where use of corporal punishment in schools had declined, he noted “a love of the teacher and a love of knowledge become a substitute—how admirable a one!—for punishment” (Horace Mann, Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Board of Education of Massachusetts for the Years 1839–1844 [Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1891], 360). 3. In “An Epistle of Tender Love and Caution” (1755), American John Woolman (1720–72) encouraged other Quakers to withhold taxes used to fund war. In 1823 English Quaker Jonathan Dymond (1796–1828) published an “Enquiry into the Accordancy of War with the Principles of Christianity.” 4. During his speech, newspaper editor and poet William Cullen Bryant (1794–1878) anticipated that “universal peace” would be “one of the next great changes” (Parke Godwin, A Biography of William Cullen Bryant, 2 vols. [New York: Appleton, 1883], 2:349–50). 5. Richard Mott (1804–88), a Toledo, Ohio, businessman and politician, had attended Nine Partners Boarding School with LM and JM. 6. The International Workingmen’s Association, which sought to “unite the workers of all countries in one fraternal bond, irrespective of all differences of nationality, language, color, creed, or trade,” advocated “the abolition of the standing army, as being a provocative to war.” Forty members of the organization had attended the Pennsylvania Peace Society’s 1871 meeting (Woodhull and Claflin’s Weekly, January 13, 1872; Bacon, 236). 7. Public higher education had expanded since the 1862 passage of the Morrill Act, which provided land grants to sixty-nine universities. 8. LM probably refers to the meeting of the Free Religious Association, which she attended. 9. Suffragist Julia Ward Howe (1819–1910), who wrote “The Battle Hymn of the Republic,” founded the Woman’s Peace Festival (Voice of Peace, 49–50). 10. Previous speaker Frederic Heaton, a Shaker, lamented “the education of the children in regard to war. How many of their playthings, theirs books, the history that they are taught, are calculated to foster a love of war, to hide its terrible character, and make it attractive to the young mind” (Voice of Peace, 53). Women’s Peace Festival, Mercantile Hall, Philadelphia, June 2, 1876 I can but hope that the language of such a hymn1 put in the mouths of little children in the Sabbath-schools, will be carried out by the conductors of these schools as well as by the children. I fear very much that even now while there is this desire for the promotion of Peace and good will among men, by the intermingling of all nations, that many of these conservators of these sacred songs are really creating a warlike spirit in the community among the class of people that Jesus most acknowledged, in the effort to close the gates of the Centennial on the First day of the week,2 and thus prevent the laboring classes of this city, and the country around from entering it on that day, not as a place of amusement, not as a place forbidden by any law, as has been shown by many of our ablest lawyers, but as a place of profitable entertainment , a place in which they and their families may have rational enjoyment, and such instruction as will be a lasting benefit to them. There is a spirit excited among these people that they have a right to go in there on the only day in which they can do it. The attempt of the Commission to keep the gates closed, it seems to me is a lamentable sign of the times; a warlike sign, and there are rumors that 212 Women’s Peace Festival, 1876 some of the people will demand their rights by force. I hope as lovers of Peace, for there is no true Peace that is not founded in justice and right,3 we shall show our love for the whole people without any distinction, by using all proper means to have this opened and by a free and open recognition of the rights of all. There is much to encourage us in the prospect of Peace, in the prospect of a disposition to settle all national differences by arbitration instead of a resort to arms. In going through these Centennial grounds we see many of the trophies of war exhibited,4 so that some feel almost forbidden to enter, but this we must expect in the present state of mankind...