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NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. In current parlance, “infographics” and “data visualization” mostly refer to images generated with computer software to create new kinds of diagrams that may reveal patterns not previously evident, with the suggestion that this is leading to a new epistemic regime based on pattern recognition rather than linear reading or narrative. See Lev Manovich, “What Is Visualization?,” Poetess Archive Journal 2 (2010),; Edward Tufte, Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (Cheshire, Conn.: Graphics Press, 1997); and other works by Tufte and Manovich. See also John Grady, “Edward Tufte and the Promise of a Visual Social Science,” in Visual Cultures of Science: Rethinking Representational Practices in Knowledge Building and Science Communication, ed. Luc Pauwels (Lebanon, N.H.: Dartmouth College Press, 2006), 222–­ 64. 2. The abundant scholarship on scientific illustration mainly focuses on the role of images and diagrams in the production, rather than circulation, of knowledge and largely neglects twentieth-­ century conceptual illustration. See, e.g., Brian Baigre, ed., Picturing Knowledge: Historical and Philosophical Problems Concerning the Use of Art in Science (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996); John Bender and Michael Marrinan, The Culture of Diagram (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2010); Robert Brain, “Representation on the Line: The Graphic Method and the Instruments of Scientific Modernism,” in From Energy to Information: Representation in Science, Art, and Literature, ed. Bruce Clark and Linda D. Henderson (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2002), 155–­ 78; Klaus Hentschel, Visual Cultures in Science and Technology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014); Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, Objectivity (New York: Zone Books, 2007); Martin Kemp, Visualizations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000); Caroline A. Jones and Peter Galison, eds., Picturing Science Producing Art (New York: Routledge, 1998); 200 | NOTES TO INTRODUCTION S. H. Poggenpohl and D. Winkler, “The Frame of Reference: Diagrams as Tools for Worldmaking,” Visible Language 26 (1992): 252–­ 71; Barbara Maria Stafford, Body Criticism: Imaging the Unseen in Enlightenment Art and Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991); and Pauwels, Visual Cultures. 3. Das Leben des Menschen; eine volkstümliche Anatomie, Biologie, Physiologie, und Entwicklungsgeschichte des Menschen [The life of man: A popular anatomy, biology, physiology, and evolutionary history of man] (Stuttgart: Franckh’sche Verlag, 1922–­ 31). 4. Cornelius Borck, “Communicating the Modern Body: Fritz Kahn’s Popular Images of Human Physiology as an Industrialized World,” Canadian Journal of Communication 32 (2007): 495–­ 520. Kahn’s publisher used the “over 1,200 illustrations” claim in its promotional campaign for Das Leben des Menschen. 5. Kahn’s artists were active collaborators, not just instruments. Uta von Debschitz (personal correspondence, 2 March 2012), following Cornelius Borck, characterizes the relationship as a “blurred . . . anonymous collective authorship.” Kahn’s artists and the nature of their collaboration with Kahn, as well as the tropes and genres they invented, are more fully discussed in chapters 3 and 4. 6. Apart from Das Leben des Menschen, Kahn’s most notable books are Unser Geschlechtsleben [Our sex life] (Zurich: Albert Müller Verlag, 1937); Der Mensch Gesund und Krank [Man in health and sickness], 2 vols. (Zurich: Albert Müller Verlag, 1939); and Das Buch der Natur [The book of nature] (Zurich: Albert Müller Verlag, 1952). 7. Borck, “Communicating the Modern Body,” and Miriam Eilers, “Urbane Kultur und Natur: Das Berlin der 1920er Jahre im populärmedizinischen Werk Fritz Kahns,” in Visiten: Berliner Impulse zur Entwicklung der modernen Medizin, ed. J. Bleker, M. Hulverscheidt, and P. Lennig (Berlin: Kulturverlag Kadmos, 2011), 197–­ 212, are thus far the best articles on Kahn. See also Borck, “Electricity as the Medium of Psychic Life: Psychotechnics, the Radio and the Encephalogram in Weimar Germany” (Berlin: Max-­ Planck-­ Institute for the History of Science, 2000); “Living Ambiguity: Speculative Bodies in Weimar Culture,” in Weimar Culture and Quantum Mechanics, ed. C. Carson, A. Kojevnikov, and H. Trischler (London: Imperial College Press, 2011), 453–­ 74; Michael Hau, The Cult of Health and Beauty in Germany: A Social History, 1890–­1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 139–­ 44; Douwe Draaisma, Metaphors of Memory: A History of Ideas about the Mind (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 214–­ 15; Uta von Debschitz and Thilo von Debschitz, eds., Fritz Kahn: Man Machine Maschine Mensch, with C. Borck and M. Eilers (Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2009); Uta von Debschitz and Thilo von Debschitz, Fritz Kahn (Los Angeles: Taschen, 2013); Miriam Eilers, “Lebensbild(er) von Fritz Kahn” (Ph.D. diss., Ruhr-­ Universität Bochum, Institute for Medical Ethics and History of...


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