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NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. "Akusalam...pajahatha. •Sakka...akusalam pajahitum. No ee tarn...sakka abhavissa akusalam pajahitum naham evam vadeyyam." A.1.58. 2. Rune Johansson, The Psychology Of Nirvana (London: Allen, Unwin, 1969); Winston King, Theravada Meditation (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1980); Padmasiri de Silva, An Introduction to Buddhist Psychology (London: Macmillan Press, 1979). 3. Robert Ornstein, The Psychology of Consciousness (New York: Viking Press, 1972); Herbert Fingarette, The Self and Transformation (New York: Basic Books, 1963); John Dunne, The Way of All the Earth (New York: Macmillan Press, 1972). 4. Soteriology means a doctrine of salvation. Although frequently found in a specifically Christian context, it is not a term confined only to that religion. G. Kittel (Theologisches Worterbuch zum Neuen Testament, Vol. 7, trans, by G. W. Bromiley, Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans, 1971, 965f) points out that soter and soteria were common words in the Attic Greek (pre-Christian) world. They had the general meaning of saving, benefitting, and preserving. H. Liddell and R. Scott (Greek-English Lexicon, New York: Harper Co., 1855, 1462) also demonstrate many nonChristian applications of the term soteria. Soteriology has a definite religious focus then, and can be legitimately used to describe questions related to freedom or salvation in any religious tradition. It is in this sense that I apply the word to Buddhism. 5. The textual references are limited largely to the five Nikayas or "collections" of the Sutta Pitaka. Ill 112 Craving and Salvation This is so chiefly because the Sutta represents the central literary work of classical Buddhism, and most of its material comes from the same oral tradition associated with the earliest rehearsals of doctrine . Of the other two Pitakas, the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma, I have made much less use. The Vinaya is for the most part concerned with rules governing the brotherhood of monks (sangha), and I refer to it sparingly because of this. The Abhidhamma is even more problematic because its expanded doctrine represents later, fine doctrinal distinctions. See A. K. Warder, Indian Buddhism (Varanasi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970, 224), for an outstanding example of how the Abhidhamma has changed the focus of one of the central concepts in early Buddhism, the doctrine of causality. 6. In the context of Western thought this might, with careful qualification, be termed "theological." Such an interpretation of the word "theology" is perhaps best stated by Paul Tillich, who defines theological problems as those that lie at the heart of any religion . Thus he writes that theology deals primarily with questions of "ultimate concern" and, further, that "the 'situation' to which theology must respond is the totality of man's creative self-interpretation in a special period" (Systematic Theology, Vol. 1, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 4, 21f. For some, this may not, sensu stricto, be applied to Theravada Buddhism. Chapter 1: CRAVING AND PAINFULNESS 1. "Thus spoke the Blessed One. Delighted, the monks rejoiced in what he said. And while this exposition was being spoken, the minds of as many as sixty monks were freed from the mental cankers with no grasping lift." "Idam avooa Bhagava. Attamana te bhikkhu Bhagavato bhasitam abhinandun ti. Imasmim kho pana veyya- Notes: Chapter 1 113 karanasmim bhannamane satthimattanam bhikkhunam anupadaya asavehi- oittani vi-mucaimsut-i. " M.S.20. 2. T. W. Rhys-Davids, Pali-English Dictionary (London: Luzac, 1966), 324. 3. V. F. Gunaratne, The Significance of the Four Noble Truths (Kandy: B.P.S., 1968), 8. 4. Some prefer to interpret sankhara dukkhata as the suffering that results from sensing the instability of all "conditioned states" that make up the individual (see The Book of the Kindred Sayings III, trans, by F. L. Woodward, London: Luzac, 1954, 72). But as K. N. Jayatilleke convincingly argues, if sankhara here refers only to "component things," then it would really be identical to viparinama dukkha. Rather, he points out, sankhara should mean "purposive psychological activities" to indicate subjective as well as objective transiency. ("Some problems of Translation and Interpretation," University of Ceylon Review 7 (1949) , 218). 5. A comparison of the Maitrl Upanisad 1.3 and M.I.130 shows almost identical concern with the momentary condition of mortal life. 6. Although I am here chiefly interested in seeing the problem of painfulness from the perspective of craving and the second noble truth, controversy arises as to whether the second truth does in fact adequately express the full range of dukkha. In this regard, Paul Younger is right when he notes that "traditionally there have been...

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