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Mind and Craving 45 than vinnana, as if it were an experiential core of personality. This reading of the term oitta does not mean that Buddhists regard it as the self. But the text does point out that through craving (tanha) and the related synonyms of ohanda, vaga, upadana, and anusaya, it is bound to the senses, and that in this way it is a kind of focus for what Johansson calls "emotions, desires and 25 moral defilements." There is a great deal of evidence to support the definition of oitta as a mental factor burdened with morally objectionable emotions and selfish needs. There is also equal evidence to demonstrate how citta can be developed and trained, and how it alone of all psychological factors can be said to experience nirvana. The study of these two aspects of oitta, the natural or "untrained" oitta of the average individual and the "trained" oitta of the liberated one, will tell us something about how craving arises, how it operates in this vital "centre of emotions," and how it can be neutralized. 8. The Untrained Citta and Craving The untrained oitta has many attributes. The texts indicate that, like mano and viunana, oitta is not a concrete , physical affair, but is incorporeal (asarira, Dhm. 37); and, although it is sometimes said to depend on sensory stimulation (phassayatana - S.4.125), it is even more closely involved with perception (sanna, S.4.293) and feelings (vedana; i.e., "perception and feeling are mental processes dependent on oitta. Thus perception and feeling are called the activity of the oitta"—"sanna oa vedana oa oetasika ete dhamma oittapatibaddha3 tasma sanna oa vedana oa oittasankharo ti"). This does not mean that oitta is the "center" of perception, a function more in keeping with mano. Citta remains, however, receptive and susceptible to the influences of perception. Aside from its sensitivity to perception, the natural oitta also has memory (M.I.22, D.I.81) and intellectual faculties ("understand with oitta—"oittena...nassati," A.1.9). 46 Craving and Salvation These aspects receive little attention in the Sutta Pitaka compared to what it has to say about the emotional nature of the untrained aitta. But one must distinguish between feelings (vedana—be they pleasant or unpleasant) and the states of affectivity or "lack of balance" which can properly be called emotion, represented by such attributes as trembling and nervousness (paritassana, S.3.16), carnal obsession (kamasava, D.I.84), anger (padosa, D.I.71; savera, D.I.247), apathy (l£na, S.5.112), 26 and mental disturbance or imbalance (uddhata, S.5.112). In the last chapter it was pointed out how the term emotion does not sufficiently describe the epistemological function of feeling (vedana). Emotion is deeper than feeling. In the case of the untrained aitta emotion is associated with gross desires and bad moral traits, sometimes with tanha (Dhm. 154), though more often with Taga (passion or desire, S.I.185), the asava (cankers, D.I.84), lobha (greed, M.I.36), and the upakkilesa (general depravity, the so-called "moral defilements"). M.I.36 points out: And what, monks, are the moral defilements (upakkilesa) of aitta? Greed and covetousness is a defilement , malevolence...anger...malice ...hypocrisy...spite...envy... stinginess...deceit...treachery ...obstinacy...impetuousness ...arrogance...pride...conceit ...indolence is a defilement of aitta. Having these unattractive features, the untrained aitta is also said to be difficult to manage (durakkha, Dhm. 33) and to be instumental in allowing "unguarded" (arakkhitam or arakkhiya) bodily (kayakamma) and mental (manokamma) actions (A.1.261). What does this tell us about aitta's involvement with craving? One must notice how open the untrained aitta is to assault by the senses and their craving for satisfaction. Even when the actual noun tanha is not used in direct conjunction with oitta, it is enough to point out, as in M.S.32 above, that several other synonyms for craving (i.e., ehanda, raga, upadana, anusaya) are Mind and Craving 47 used with citta. Johansson calls them the "adhesive - 27 tape of tanha" which bind citta to the consciousness ( of the five senses (i.e., eye consciousness, ear consciousness, etc.), and thence to their objects and physical stimuli. The untrained citta is, therefore, very much under the influence of craving, and its liberation depends first and foremost on ridding itself of this "tape" which secures it to the world of consciousness and thence samsara. Clearly, the untrained citta cannot escape rebirth...


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