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Chapter 2 MIND AND CRAVING How does craving arise within the mind? What positive or deleterious effects will it have on the individual? To begin, the concept of consciousness in the Series of Dependencies must be considered in greater detail, particularly the term v-irinana and other factors, including craving, which are closely related to it. Second, what is to be understood by the terms "mind" (mano or mana), often interpreted as an inner sense with an active instrumental function, and oitta, which also means mind, but which has an experiential function all its own. Lastly, there is the question of the unconscious . Here the Buddha argues that behind conscious craving there are unconscious roots and inclinations which must be penetrated and controlled if craving itself is to be mastered. Examining these areas will provide an inclusive picture of the Buddhist account of "mind," as well as an understanding of how craving grows and operates within it. 1. Virinana as "Consciousness" In Buddhism the most common Pali term for consciousness is vinnana. But how is craving related to this factor? The basic problem here is that of interpreting what the Buddhists mean by vinfiana employed as consciousness, and as the term occurs elsewhere. For, apart from its role in the Series of Dependencies, vinnana is also used in two other quite different contexts —as a factor in meditation and as the element which "survives" in rebirth. The first task is to set down the central texts which explain what vinnana is and how it involves 22 ...

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