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61 Notes 1. The term Latino is used here—although Hispanic is synonymous—for people of Latin American origin living permanently or semipermanently within the boundaries of the United States. 2. Francisco A. Rosales, “Mexican Immigration to the Urban Midwest during the 1920s” (Ph.D. diss., Indiana University, 1978), 92, 99, 107. 3. Dennis N. Valdes, “Betabeleros: The Formation of an Agricultural Proletariat in the Midwest, 1897–1930,” Labor History 30 (fall 1989): 556–58, 562. 4. Eduard A. Skendzel, Detroit’s Pioneer Mexicans: A Study of the Mexican Colony in Detroit (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Littleshield Press, 1980), 7, 27–30. 5. Zaragosa Vargas, Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917–1933 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 20. 6. Zaragosa Vargas, “Life and Community in the ‘Wonderful City of the Magic Motor’: Mexican Immigrants in 1920s Detroit,” Michigan Historical Review 15 (spring 1989): 49; John R. Weeks and Joseph Spielberg Benitez, “The Cultural Demography of Midwestern Chicano Communities,” in The Chicano Experience, Stanley A. West and June Macklin, eds. (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1979), 231. 7. Louis C. Murillo, “The Detroit Michigan ‘Colonia’ from 1920 to 1932: Implications for Social and Educational Policy” (Ph.D. diss., Michigan State University, 1981), 33, 34. 8. Norman D. Humphrey, “Employment Patterns of Mexicans in Detroit,” Monthly Labor Review 61 (November 1945): 914, 921. 9. Norman D. Humphrey, “Mexican Repatriation from Michigan: Public Assistance in Historical Perspective,” Social Service Review 15 (September 1941): 501–3, 512; Vargas, “Life and Community,” 65, 67. For an account of repatriates in Mexico, see Paul S. Taylor, A Spanish-Mexican Peasant Community : Arandas in Jalisco, Mexico (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1933). 10. Rosales, “Mexican Immigration,” 107–10. 11. Kay D. Willson, “The Historical Development of Migrant Labor in Michigan Agriculture” (Master’s thesis, Michigan State University, 1978), 22–25, 39–43; Carey McWilliams, “Mexicans to Michigan,” in A Documentary History of the Mexican Americans, ed. Wayne Moquin (1941; reprint, New York: Praeger, 1971), 311–14. See also Carey McWilliams, Ill Fares the Land: Migrants and Migratory Labor in the United States (Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1942). 12. Valdes, “Betabeleros,” 59–61. 13. Reymundo Cardenas, “The Mexican in Adrian,” Michigan History 42 (September 1958): 346–49. 14. Quoted in Melvin G. Holli, “The Founding of Detroit by Cadillac,” Michigan Historical Review 27 (spring 2001): 135. 15. “The Redemptorists in Detroit,” Holy Redeemer Weekly 26 (22 July 1951): 1, 3, 4; Brian Wilson, “The Spirit of the Motor City: Three Hundred Years of Religious History in Detroit,” Michigan Historical Review 27 (spring 2001): 25. 16. Skendzel, Detroit’s Pioneer Mexicans, 29; Ralph Janis, “The Brave NewWorld that Failed: Patterns of Parish Social Structure in Detroit, 1880–1940” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1972), 169. 17. Father Gabriel Ginard to Monsignor Doyle, 5 March1926, Our Lady of Guadalupe file, Archives of the Archdiocese of Detroit (hereafter OLG). 18. “Jacobus” to Monsignor Doyle, 14 September 1927, OLG. 19. Father Peter T. Fiexa, speech at St. Anne’s Church, 18 September 1939, cited in Norman D. Humphrey, “The Mexican Peasant in Detroit” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1943), 157. David A. Badillo 62 20. Simón Muñoz et al., Detroit, to Most Illustrious and Reverend Lord Bishop of the Catholic Diocese of Detroit, Michigan, 18 October 1932, OLG. 21. Petition of the Altar Society to Bishop Gallagher, 14 May 1936, OLG; telegram from Mexican Committee to Bishop Gallagher, 13 July 1927, OLG. 22. Josefina González, quoted in Margarita Valdez, ed., Tradiciones del Pueblo: Traditions of Three Mexican Feast Days in Southwest Detroit (Detroit: Casa de Unidad Cultural Arts and Media Center, 1990), 19; see also Skendzel, Detroit’s Pioneer Mexicans, 35, 36. 23. For background on Father Kern, see Genevieve M. Casey, Father Clem Kern: Conscience of Detroit (Detroit: Marygrove College, 1989). 24. Valdez, Tradiciones del Pueblo, 13. 25. This “labor migration” occurred as the island economy underwent modernization under a program of economic development that offered tax incentives for investment in capital-intensive manufacturing enterprises by U.S. companies. 26. Edwin Maldonado, “Contract Labor and the Origin of Puerto Rican Communities in the United States,” in Forging a Community: The Latino Experience in Northwest Indiana, 1919–1975, ed. James B. Lane and Edward J. Escobar (Chicago: Cattails Press, 1987), 201, 203–4. 27. “Beet Airlift,” Detroit Tribune, 14 June 1950, 1. 28. For background on the evolution of Puerto Rican settlement on the U.S. mainland...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780870138881
Related ISBN
9780870136450
MARC Record
OCLC
606038479
Pages
80
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
No
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