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Notes Preface 1.“The Passing of Naturalism,” Outlook 64 (10 March 1900): 570–71. 2.Sidney Gendin, “Was Stephen Crane (or Anybody Else) a Naturalist ?” Cambridge Quarterly 24.2 (1995): 89–101. Chapter 1 1.Frederic Taber Cooper,“Frank Norris,Realist.”Bookman 10 (November 1899): 234–38. 2.This is one of the central points in John A. Garraty’s The New Commonwealth: 1877–1890 (New York: Harper & Row, 1968). 3.These are all actual titles from articles appearing in the North American Review and the Forum in the last third of the nineteenth century. 4.An English translation of Alas’s preface is reprinted in George Becker, ed.,DocumentsofModernLiteraryRealism (Princeton,N.J.:Princeton UP, 1963) 266–73. All page references will be to this edition. 5.These statements by Valdes can be found in his prologue to La hermana SanSulpicio (1899).AnauthorizedEnglishtranslationofthis work by Nathan Haskell Dole, Sister Saint Sulpice (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co.), appeared in 1890. In the Dole translation, see pages 17–18forValdes’sdefinitionof“theso-calledFrenchNaturalism.” 6.See Lilian R. Furst and Peter N. Skrine, Naturalism, 33–36. Donald Pizer also notes that the traditional linkage of French and American naturalismisproblematic.SeehisTheoryandPracticeofAmericanLiterary Naturalism, 39. 7.Edwin H. Cady, Light of Common Day, 8. For further discussion of Notes to Pages 6–9 169 the difference between the romantic and the realistic use of symbols, see chapter 2 of the present study. 8.Or as Furst and Skrine note: “Fortunately, with rare exceptions, the adherentsof Naturalism did not quite practice what they preached”(70). 9.For a discussion of Zola’s reception in America,see Herbert Edwards, “Zola and the American Critics,”114–29; and William C.Frierson and Herbert Edwards, “The Impact of French Naturalism on American Critical Opinion 1877–1892,” 1007–16. For a comparative treatment of Zola’s reception in England, see Clarence R. Decker, “Zola’s Literary Reputation in England,” 1140–53. 10. See Theodore Dreiser: A Selection of Uncollected Prose, ed. Donald Pizer(Detroit:WayneStateUP,1977),186.RegardingZola,Cranewrote in a letter in early 1897: “Zola is a sincere writer but—is he much good? He hangs one thing to another and his story goes along but I find him prettytiresome”(StanleyWertheimandPaulSorrentino,eds.,TheCorrespondence of Stephen Crane [New York: Columbia UP,1988],2:673). Foracollectionof JackLondon’swritingsonthecraftoffiction,including many essays on the business of writing, see Jack London, No MentorButMyself ,ed.DaleWalker(PortWashington,N.Y.:Kennikat,1979). 11. Donald Pizer holds a comparable view. See Theory and Practice, 39. Thereareoccasionalindividualtextsthatshowadistinctinfluencefrom some of Zola’s work.As a whole,however,the American strain of literarynaturalismdevelopedlargelyindependentofdirectinfluencebythe French school.Also see Philip Rahv’s treatment of this issue in his1942 essay “Notes on the Decline of Naturalism,”reprinted in Becker,579– 90. See also Anthony Savile, “Naturalism and the Aesthetic,” 46–63. Amongotherpoints,Savileremarksinsomedetailonthetheory/praxis discrepancy in Zola’s aesthetic concept of the “experimental” novel. 12. BothoftheseessaysareeasilyaccessibleinEnglishtranslationinBecker, 162–229. All page references will be to this edition. 13. “Zola’s Essays,” Atlantic Monthly 41 (January 1881): 116–19; quotation , 118. 14. Thomas Hardy, “The Science of Fiction” (1891); reprinted in Thomas Hardy’s Personal Writings: Prefaces, Literary Opinions, Reminiscences , ed. Harold Orel (Lawrence: U of Kansas P, 1966), 134–38. 15.“Naturalism,” Westminster Review 132.2 (1889): 185–89. 16. Émile Zola, Germinal (New York: Penguin, 1954), 28. 170 Notes toPage 9 17. Paul Alexis, “Naturalism Is Not Dead,” reprinted in Becker, 407–11; quotation, 410. 18. Some selections from the journals of Edmond and Jules de Goncourt relevant to naturalism are reprinted in The Modern Tradition: BackgroundsofModernLiterature ,Richard Ellmann and Charles Feidelson Jr., eds. (New York: Oxford UP, 1965), 297–99; quotation, 298. 19.Although L’Assommoir may have been the first translated into English, the first book in the series was Zola’s La Fortune des Rougon (1871). 20. Of course, by 1894 Norris had published only a few items, the most significant of which may be his short story “Lauth.” 21. For a list of English translations of Zola’sfiction appearing in the United States, see Gwendolyn Jones, “Zola’s Publications in English in the United States, 1876–1902,” Frank Norris Studies 14 (autumn 1992): 8– 11. In my research I have uncovered no concrete evidence to suggest that Norris ever read Zola’s Le roman expérimental. Perhaps the most thorough research into the particular question of whether Norris ever read Le roman expérimental has been conducted by Christine Harvey (see, for instance, her article “Dating Frank Norris’s Reading of...


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