Glossary
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397 Glossary ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine). The chemotherapy regimen most commonly used to treat Hodgkin disease. activated lymphocyte. A lymphocyte that has encountered an antigen it recognizes and has thereby been stimulated to proliferate and differentiate. active immunization. Exposure to an antigen in order to elicit a specific immune response against that antigen from the cells of the adaptive immune system. acupuncture. A branch of traditional Chinese medicine in which fine needles are inserted into specific locations of the body for therapeutic purposes; in the related technique of acupressure, these locations are stimulated, but the skin is not actually pierced. acute graft-versus-host disease. A complication of allogeneic stem cell transplants in which the donor lymphocytes attack the recipient’s body. acyclovir (brand names: Avirax, Zovirax). An antiviral drug. adaptive immune system. The part of the immune system that involves specific responses to particular antigens and is responsible for the phenomenon of immunological memory; includes T cells and B cells. adenoids. Lymphoid structures found in the nasal cavity. Adriamycin (generic names: doxorubicin, hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydoxorubicin ; other brand names: Doxil, Rubex). An antineoplastic drug used in treating lymphoma that is classified as an anthracycline. adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). A form of lymphoma associated with infection with the retrovirus HTLV-1. advanced disease. Bulky Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV lymphoma. Agent Orange. A herbicide that is suspected of contributing to the pathogenesis of lymphoma. aggressive disease. Lymphoma that progresses quickly, so that someone who remained untreated would be expected to survive only months to a few years after diagnosis. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). A viral disease that leaves U 398 Glossary people susceptible to many pathogens and that is a risk factor for developing aggressive forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. alemtuzumab (brand name: Campath). A monoclonal antibody directed against CD52, a protein found on the cell surface of both B cells and T cells. alendronate (brand name: Fosamax). A drug that inhibits the loss of calcium from the bones. alkylating agents. A class of antineoplastic drugs. allogeneic transplant. A stem cell transplant in which the donor is neither the recipient nor the recipient’s identical twin. allopurinol (brand names: Aloprim, Lopurin, Purinol, Zyloprim). A drug used to prevent massive release of uric acid when many tumor cells die at once. alopecia. Hair loss. alternative therapies. Nontraditional therapies used instead of conventional medicine. amino acids. The chemical building blocks that make up proteins. amphotericin (brand names: Amphocin, Fungizone). An antifungal drug. amplification. A mutation in which sections of a chromosome are inappropriately repeated many times. anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). An aggressive T-cell lymphoma. anemia. Any condition in which there are low levels of hemoglobin, the ironbearing protein found in red blood cells. anergic. Refers to lymphocytes that have become unresponsive to the antigen that they recognize. angiogenesis. Growth of blood vessels. angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL). An aggressive T-cell lymphoma. Ann Arbor B symptoms. Fever, weight loss, and night sweats, used as part of lymphoma staging. Ann Arbor staging system. The most common system for defining how far lymphoma has spread through your body. anthracyclines. A class of antineoplastic drugs. antiangiogenesis. A therapeutic approach aimed at inhibiting the growth of new blood vessels to tumors. antibody. A secreted protein that specifically recognizes and binds to an antigen. antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. A mechanism in which natural killer cells are recruited to cells that antibodies have bound to so that the antibody-coated cells can be destroyed. antigen. A substance capable of eliciting a specific immune response. antigenic determinant. The part of an antigen that a particular antibody recognizes . antimetabolites. A class of antineoplastic drugs. antimitotics. A class of antineoplastic drugs. antineoplastic agents. Drugs used to treat cancer; chemotherapy drugs. Glossary 399 V antioxidant. A substance that prevents oxidation, which can therefore protect cells from oxidative damage caused by highly reactive substances called free radicals. antisense gene therapy. A therapeutic approach in which a sequence of nucleotides complementary to a particular stretch of messenger RNA is given to someone to inhibit production of the protein encoded by that messenger RNA. apheresis. A procedure in which whole blood is withdrawn, some component of the blood removed, and the rest returned to the body. apoptosis. A process of programmed cell death whereby unnecessary or nonfunctional cells can be eliminated. appendix. A lymphoid structure that projects from the gut. aprepitant. Substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist used as an antiemetic. aspergillus. A fungal pathogen. autoimmune disease. A disease...