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ANSWERS TO CHAPTER 1 The Sun and the Nature of the Solar System 1. Consider: The orbital planes and senses of revolution of the planets and asteroids; the sense of rotation of the Sun; the sense of revolution of planetary satellites and ring material; the composition and density of planets as a function of heliocentric distance; the large number of asteroids and their orbits; the cratering of the solid surfaces of the Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, asteroids, and planetary satellites; and the radiogenic ages of the Earth, the Moon, and meteorites. 2. (d) Kuiper. 3. (a) Were developed by accretion from a primordial cloud of gas and dust. 4. (b) The Sun will have about its present size and brightness for at least another billion years. 5. (b) Elements such as iron, nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are concentrated near the surface. (False) 125 126 / The Sun and the Nature of the Solar System 6. (a) Is the largest object in the solar system. 7. (c) That there probably are planetary systems associated with many millions of other stars. 8. (d) Nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium. 9. (411" r2)(1.4) = 4 x 1023 kilowatts. 10. Mean density = 1.41 g cm-3 plus equation of state of material under self-gravitational pressure. 11. (c) The photosphere. 12. (d) 5,800 degrees Kelvin. 13. (c) In the blue-green portion of the spectrum. 14. (d) Absorption lines of many different elements in the spectrum of the whole disc of the Sun. 15. Identification of Fraunhofer lines with laboratory spectra. 16. (a) Absorption lines in the spectrum of photospheric light. 17. Density P = Po (1- r) for 0 =:; r =:; 1.0. Integrate dm = 411"r2 P dr from r = 0 and r = 1 to find the total mass m = 11" po/3, then integrate dm from r = 0 to such an upper limit as to give 11" po/6. Result r = 0.614. 18. 270,200 AU (1.31 parsec). 19. About one-half of the distance to the nearest star, Proxima Centauri , that is, 135,100 AU. 20. 215. 21. (b) 330,000 times as great as that of the Earth. The Sun and the Nature of the Solar System / 127 22. (b) A spherical shell of gas about 3,000 km thick. 23. 6.7% (assuming 5 X 109 as the age of the solar system). 24. (a) About 1 million degrees Kelvin. 25. (a) Magnetized dust. (False) 26. By observing the day-to-day east to west movement of durable sunspots across the visible disc of the Sun. 27. Use eyepiece projection of the image of the Sun onto a white screen and observe the day-to-day motion of durable sunspots across the visible disc. 28. (a) 27 days. 29. (a) 11 years. 30. (b) Changes in the orbital motion of the Earth. (False) 31. (d) Factors of ten or more. 32. (b) Consists of hot ionized gas, mostly hydrogen, moving radially outwards from the Sun's corona. ...


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