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259  Notes Introduction 1. On the influence of Shylock, see Gross, Shylock; Felsenstein, Anti-Semitic Stereotypes , chap. 7; Shapiro, Shakespeare and the Jews, chaps. 3 and 4; Julius, Trials of the Diaspora, 178–92. 2. Bevington, Shakespeare, 229. Shylock’s reference to the “wry-necked fife” could refer to the instrument or its player’s twisted neck. 3. Garber, Shakespeare After All, 299. Garber describes how Shylock’s “anticomic repression” leads to his tragic downfall and punishment (ibid). 4. Bevington, Shakespeare, 229. 5. “What Belmont and gallant Venice alike hold against the Jew is not so much his usury, much less his denial of Christ, but his puritan austerity and his insistence that men are finally accountable” (Fiedler, Stranger in Shakespeare, 131). See also C. Richardson, Shakespeare and Material Culture, 50–51. 6. Calhoun,Affecting Grace,187. While Shakespeare attacks puritanical denigrations of the theater by aligning a sober asceticism with the Jew, Shylock’s criticisms of revelry aren’t entirely unfounded in the play. 7. De Sousa, “‘My Hopes Abroad,’” 50. 8. Booth, “Shylock’s Sober House,” 23, 26–27. 9. Ibid., 23. 10. For patristic and medieval examples, see J. Cohen, Living Letters of the Law. But see also Lipton, Dark Mirror, on patristic writers’ stress on the visual capacity of “the Jew” as witness to Christ’s life and crucifixion. 11. Foxe, A sermon, B3r. Adelman analyzes the sermon and Merchant in Blood Relations. 12. Foxe, A sermon, R6v–R7r. 13. Ibid. 14. Tiffany, “Names in the Merchant ofVenice,” 358. 15. On the Jew and stone, see chapter 1 and J. J. Cohen, Stone, 150–53. 16. Peter the Venerable, Adversus Judeorum, 58. 17. The first quarto of Merchant was printed in 1600. 18. Yaeger, “Introduction,” 15. In this book I primarily invoke “space” not in reference to abstract space but rather to space as a meaningful yet unstable entity that is constructed through culture and society. Space in this book thus at times carries the sorts of valences that certain scholars attach to the term “place” (for example, Tuan, Space and Place; Cresswell, In Place/Out of Place). My terminology and methodology roughly align with that of Lefebvre, Production of Space, Soja, Postmodern Geographies, Smith, Uneven Development, and Yaeger, ibid., note 5. 260 NOTES TO PAGE 4–6 19. OED, s.v. accommodate. 20. On the English medieval origins of the Wandering Jew legend and its eventual popularity,see chapter 6 and Anderson,Legend of the Wandering Jew. Lisa LampertWeissig is completing a book on the wandering Jew legend that will complicate received ideas about the literary history of the legend, by demonstrating its currency in medieval England. 21. Bale, Feeling Persecuted. 22. Stacey discusses “the precocious development of medieval English antiSemitism ” in “Anti-Semitism and the Medieval English State,” 163. See also the works cited ibid., 162n1. 23. Some archaeological and documentary evidence—none definitive—suggests that Jews visited and inhabited both Roman Britain and Anglo-Saxon England, but not in any substantial manner. See Mundill,King’s Jews,1–4;Applebaum, “Were There Jews in Roman Britain?,”198–99;Roth,History of the Jews in England,1–2;Baron,Social and Religious History of the Jews, 6:76; Golb, Jews in Medieval Normandy, 112–14. 24. Stacey, “Anti-Semitism and the Medieval English State,” 166; J. Campbell, “Was It Infancy in England?,” 14; Agus, Urban Civilisation, 61; and H. Richardson, English Jewry under the Angevin Kings, 1n4. 25. Golb, Jews in Medieval Normandy, 112–15. 26. On the prospect of Jewish–Christian neighboring and friendly relations, see Rutledge, “Medieval Jews of Norwich and Their Legacy,” 122–24; and J. J. Cohen, “Future of the Jews of York.” 27. On the York massacre, see Rees Jones and Watson, Christians and Jews in Angevin England. 28. On Lateran IV and the English use of the badge,see especially Despres, “Protean Jew in the Vernon Manuscript,” 147–48; Bale, Jew in the Medieval Book, 15; and Mundill, England’s Jewish Solution, 49–50. 29. On Meir, see Einbinder, “Meir b. Elijah of Norwich”; Krummel, Crafting Jewishness in Medieval England; and Pim, “Introduction.” 30. Meir b. Elijah of Norwich, “A Liturgical Poem,” lines 19–20, in Into the Light, 30–37 at 32. 31. Meir b. Elijah of Norwich, “Poem Six,” lines 1–2, in Into the Light, 98. 32. I place “readmission”in scare quotes because Jews were never truly absent from England. For example, after the expulsion Jews continued to live in England in the Domus...


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Subject Headings

  • Jews in literature.
  • Antisemitism in literature.
  • English literature -- Old English, ca. 450-1100 -- History and criticism.
  • English literature -- Middle English, 1100-1500 -- History and criticism.
  • English literature -- Early modern, 1500-1700 -- History and criticism.
  • Antisemitism -- England -- History.
  • Jews -- England -- History.
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