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239 Notes Introduction 1 All personal names in this book are pseudonyms. I have replaced participants’ names with other names of the appropriate gender and place of origin, depending on the participant’s background. I have also replaced names of places and institutions such as clinics and hospitals. 2 “Nadipur” is a pseudonym for the city in which the majority of the surrogates I interviewed, including Nishi, lived. It is part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, which has a population of more than 18 million and includes the cities of Ambernath , Badlapur, Kalyan-Dombivali, Mira-Bhayander, Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane, and Ulhasnagar. According to the 2011 Census, Nadipur had a population of more than 500,000, with males comprising 53 percent of the population and females 47 percent. Nadipur is an industrial area, known as a hub of the garment industry in which many Western clothing brands are copied. The city is reachable by road or by Mumbai’s suburban railway system, which is how my assistants and I would travel to conduct interviews. From central Mumbai, the train journey takes approximately one and a half hours. 3 All estimates of fees, payments, or money exchanged are based on the 2010 average exchange rate of 1 U.S. dollar to 45.68 Indian rupees. 4 While there are few ethnographic studies that examine processes of racialization in the context of transnational surrogacy, scholars in gender studies and philosophy have begun to focus explicitly on race in studies of surrogacy (see Harrison 2014; Banerjee 2014). 5 While there is a shift toward nuclear family living arrangements, particularly in urban areas, some families continue to live in extended family arrangements together with the husband’s parents. Chapter 1. Public Health and Assisted Reproduction in India 1 A report by the Confederation of Indian Industry estimates that the surrogacy industry generates $2.3 billion annually (Gupta 2011). This figure is widely cited in media and research articles, while others note the industry is worth $445 million (IANS 2008). Current data on the surrogacy industry in India, however, are difficult to obtain and often unavailable, contributing to what Anindita Majumdar calls its “mythic value” on the global market for reproductive services (2014, 220). 240 | Notes 2 In comparison, in 2002 in the United States, 68 percent of mothers who had live births received an ultrasound, while 99 percent of births were delivered in hospitals (Martin et al. 2003). 3 Due to the lack of regulation, it is difficult to find reliable statistics regarding the numbers of births or numbers of clients who travel to India for surrogacy services ; Time magazine claims that 25,000 couples travel to India each year (Bhowmick 2013), while the Telegraph estimates that 2,000 surrogacy births occurred in India in 2011 (Bhatia 2012). While it is difficult to assess these estimates, the low rates of success with IVF contextualize their large discrepancy. In 2009 the Indian Society for Assisted Reproduction (ISAR) conducted an estimated 18,000 IVF cycles (their statistics do not say how many couples these cycles served or how many were foreign), averaging a 30 percent rate of pregnancy. The group says that only half of the clinics throughout India are members, making the total number of IVF cycles sought much higher (Rai 2010). Nonmembers may have lower success rates. As a result, the number of clients traveling for surrogacy should be significantly higher than the number of surrogacy births—although tenfold seems unlikely. 4 In contrast, many countries, including China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and some U.S. states ban surrogacy altogether. Other countries have imposed partial bans, such as Australia (Victoria), Brazil, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, South Africa, and the United Kingdom. Among these countries, Canada, Greece, South Africa, Israel, and the United Kingdom permit surrogacy, though it is subject to governmental regulations . There are still other countries with no regulations at all, including Belgium, Finland, India, and some U.S. states (Teman 2010). While surrogacy surged in India in the first decade of the twenty-first century, commercial surrogacy remained most prevalent in the state of California and Israel—where the state restricts surrogacy to Jewish citizens. Indian surrogacy practices closely mirror the liberal market model of surrogacy in California, where private, commercial agencies manage surrogacy arrangements. These agencies rely on their own criteria for screening, matching, and regulating surrogacy agreements, and in India clinics operate largely without state intervention. They also benefit from government support for medical...


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