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233 Appendix Profile of Study Participants I collected ethnographic data primarily through participant observation and in-depth interviews with a wide range of actors. In this appendix I describe the different groups of actors who participated in this study, providing broad demographic background information on the research participants. Commissioning Parents: During the course of this research, I conducted interviews with a total of 46 intended parents (representative of 29 couples and 2 single intended parents)1 who traveled to India for either IVF or surrogacy. Intended parents who traveled to India solely for IVF were all heterosexual married couples and hailed from Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Myanmar. Intended parents who traveled for gestational surrogacy (with or without egg donation) came from primarily high-income countries: 19 intended parents from the United States and 9 from Australia, with the remaining parents traveling from Norway, France, Canada, Israel, and the Netherlands (in rare cases, individuals held citizenship in countries other than those in which they lived, for example, one British national lived in the Netherlands and sought British citizenship for his children). Of the 39 intended parents (comprising 24 couples and 2 single individuals) who pursued Indian surrogacy, 19 identified as gay. Of the 26 couples/single individuals who undertook gestational surrogacy, 19 did so with donor eggs. With regard to racial and ethnic background, the majority of parents interviewed identified as white, with the exception of one African American, two Latinos, three Asians, and one of mixed racial background. With the exception of two individuals, all the commissioning parents had attended some college or earned at least a bachelor’s degree. Here I should note how this sample relates to the broader universe of couples who travel to India for surrogacy. Because surrogacy is unregu- 234 | Appendix lated, there is very little reliable statistical data on the numbers of couples who travel to India and on the countries from which they originate. Most of the statistics available address numbers of Australian couples traveling to India, and a survey conducted by Surrogacy Australia, a notfor -profit agency, found that in 2012, 200 babies were born via surrogacy in India for Australian couples, compared with 179 in 2011 and 86 in 2010 (Arjunpuri 2013). Another report claims that approximately 250 babies are born each year via surrogacy in India for Australian commissioning parents (with 40 born in Thailand, a growing surrogacy market , and 35 in the United States) (Miller 2013). The actual figures could be even higher, however, as Immigration Department statistics show that the number of babies born to Australian citizens in India jumped from 170 in 2008 to 394 in 2012. While it is difficult to know precisely how many of those children were born via surrogacy, the number of Australians living in India has not risen significantly in the same time period (Whitelaw 2012). Meanwhile, different media reports suggest that approximately half of overseas commissioning parents contracting with Indian surrogates are Australian (Arjunpuri 2013), contradicting reports claiming that Britain sends the highest numbers of people seeking surrogacy services in India, accounting for as many as 1,000 births in India (Bhatia 2012). In a study recently published in the Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, researchers found that increasing numbers of couples from the United Kingdom register children to foreign surrogates (Crawshaw, Blyth, and van den Akker 2012). With respect to U.S. commissioning parents, media reports offer rather vague statements regarding “hundreds of Americans” who travel to India each year for surrogacy (Williams 2013a, 2013b). A report by the Confederation of Indian Industries estimates that around 10,000 foreign couples have visited India so far to commission surrogate pregnancies, and nearly 30 percent of these have been gay or unmarried (Dhillon 2015). Other sources claim that more than 25,000 babies have been born in India as a result of gestational surrogacy; 50 percent of these are from the West (Shetty 2012). Clearly, reliable statistics are hard to come by, and what numbers are available are mainly found in journalistic sources and difficult to verify. Given the lack of verifiable statistical data, it would be challenging to analyze to what extent my sample reflects the broader universe of Appendix | 235 individuals seeking surrogacy services in India. However, the available statistics suggest that most commissioning parents travel from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. My sample is not representative of this trend; because I relied partially on introductions through personal networks, my sample includes primarily Western participants...


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