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209 Notes Abbreviations ASPFR : Lowrie et al., American State Papers: Documents, Legislative and Executive, of the Congress of the United States, Foreign Relations Series BHC : Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library BLN : Notes from Foreign Legations, Great Britain, Record Group 59, General Records of the Department of State, National Archives of the United States CO : Colonial Office Papers, National Archives of the United Kingdom FO : Foreign Office Papers, National Archives of the United Kingdom LAC : Library and Archives of Canada MPHC : Historical Collections of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society PAG : Albert Gallatin Papers, New-York Historical Society PJA : Quaife, ed., The John Askin Papers PJGS : Cruikshank, ed., The Correspondence of Lieut. Governor John Graves Simcoe PPR : Cruikshank and Hunter, eds., The Correspondence of the Honourable Peter Russell PWS : Winthrop Sargent Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society Stat : U.S. Government, The Public Statutes at Large of the United States of America TPUS : Carter, ed., Territorial Papers of the United States WHC : Thwaites et al., eds., Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin WLC : William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan Introduction 1. Morning Herald, and Daily Advertiser, January 29, 1783. The London newspapers reported the conclusion of the preliminary peace treaty between Great Britain and the United States on November 4, 1782. Thomas Townshend, home secretary in the Shelburne cabinet, did not inform Parliament of the particular articles of the American treaty until after the conclusion of peace preliminaries with France and Spain, and the cessation of hostilities with the United Provinces. 2. “Representation of the Merchants Trading to the Province of Quebec,” January  31, 1783, Shelburne Papers, 72:461, WLC. 3. Morning Herald, and Daily Advertiser, February 5, 1783. 4. “Sundry Observations on ye. American Treaty, by Richard Oswald,” February 6, 1783, Shelburne Papers, 87, part 2:216. 5. Ibid. 6. Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided: The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), xi. 210 Notes to Pages 3–5 7. Maya Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World (New York: Vintage Books, 2012), 8–9. 8. Alan Taylor, The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels and Indian Allies (New York: Vintage Books, 2010), 4–8. 9. Peter S. Onuf, The Mind of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007), 66. 10. John Torpey, The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship, and the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 1, 4–17. 11. James H. Kettner, The Development of American Citizenship, 1608–1870 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1978); Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities : Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1983). 12. The political scientist Rogers M. Smith argues that lawmakers throughout U.S. history have structured American citizenship according to ascriptive inequalities based on hierarchies of race, ethnicity, and gender. Smith, Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997), 1–12. 13. For the indeterminate nature of political forms in the late eighteenth century, see J. G. A. Pocock, “States, Republics, and Empires: The American Founding in Early Modern Perspective,” in Terence Bell and J. G. A. Pocock, eds., Conceptual Change and the Constitution (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1988), 55–77; Peter Onuf and Nicholas Onuf, Federal Union, Modern World: The Law of Nations in an Age of Revolutions, 1776–1814 (Madison, Wis.: Madison House, 1993); and David C. Hendrickson , Peace Pact: The Lost World of the American Founding (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2003). 14. Leonard J. Sadosky, Revolutionary Negotiations: Indians, Empires, and Diplomats in the Founding of America (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009); Eliga H. Gould, Among the Powers of the Earth: The American Revolution and the Making of a New World Empire (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2012). 15. For arguments emphasizing the overarching importance of Thomas Jefferson’s ideological commitment to idealist principles in U.S. foreign relations, see Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson, Empire of Liberty: The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Bradford Perkins, The Creation of a Republican Empire, 1776–1865 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993); and Doron Ben-Atar, The Origins of Jeffersonian Commercial Policy and Diplomacy (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993). For a recent study that attempts to move beyond the realist-idealist dichotomy in interpreting Jeffersonian foreign policy, see Francis D. Cogliano, Emperor of Liberty: Thomas Jefferson’s Foreign Policy (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2014). 16...