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vii 1. Terrence Malick (director), The New World (2005): open water sequence with Wagner’s Rheingold Prelude • 8 2. Malick, The New World: Powhatan man signals alarm • 9 3. Malick, The New World: Powhatans witnessing arrival of colonists’ ships • 9 4. “The Mammoth Trees (Sequoia gigantea), California (Calaveras County)” (c. 1860) • 22 5. Albert Bierstadt, Among the Sierra Nevada, California (1868) • 24 6. Bierstadt, Cathedral Forest • 25 7. David Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West (1906), playbill • 27 8. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West: Novelized from the Play (1911) • 28 9. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West: Novelized from the Play (1911), title page and movie still • 28 10. John Francis Dillon (director), The Girl of the Golden West (1930), Vitaphone sound film, movie herald • 29 11. “The Girl of the Olden West” (1923), sheet music cover • 29 12. “Little Girl of the Golden West” (1920), sheet music cover • 30 13. “Maid of the West” (1923), sheet music cover • 30 14. “A Girl from the Golden West” (1906), stereograph • 31 ILLUSTRATIONS viii • I L L U S T R A T I O N S 15. “Wills’s Cigarettes”: cigarette-pack advertising for 1930 film The Girl of the Golden West (front) • 32 16. “Wills’s Cigarettes”: cigarette-pack advertising for 1930 film The Girl of the Golden West (back) • 32 17. Blanche Bates as Minnie in David Belasco’s The Girl of the Golden West (1905–6) • 35 18. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West (1905–6), act one • 35 19. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West, act two • 36 20. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West, act curtain • 38 21. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West, act four (epilogue) • 41 22. Belasco, The Girl of the Golden West, act four (epilogue) • 41 23. Giacomo Puccini, The Girl of the Golden West (1910), piano-vocal score, cover illustration • 42 24. Emmy Destinn as Minnie in La fanciulla del West (1910) • 44 25. Enrico Caruso as Dick Johnson in La fanciulla del West (1910) • 44 26. “Cutting down the big trees—a group of ax-men sitting in the undercut— Converse Basin, California” (c. 1902) • 52 27. “A Giant Sequoia Log” (undated), Generals Highway, Three Rivers, Tulare County, California • 52 28. “Ending of a life of centuries, a giant tree falling, logging among the big trees, Converse Basin, California” (1902), stereograph • 53 29. Puccini, La fanciulla del West, New York, Metropolitan Opera House (1910), act three • 54 30. Werner Herzog (director), Fitzcarraldo (1982), title, with Teatro Amazonas Opera House, Manaus, Brazil • 58 31. Sarah Bernhardt • 59 32. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: cross-dressed “Sarah Bernhardt” miming Elvira, together with Caruso, in Ernani • 61 33. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: soprano in the orchestra pit singing the part of Elvira for Sarah Bernhardt, who mimes the role onstage • 61 34. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: Caruso on the gramophone “silences” the Indian drumming • 64 35. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: Indian children hear Caruso on Fitzcarraldo’s gramophone • 65 36. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: the Molly Aïda pulled up the hill • 66 37. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: the Molly Aïda lost to the rapids • 67 I L L U S T R A T I O N S • ix 38. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: the Lucia sextet plays on the gramophone aboard the Molly Aïda as the boat crashes against the walls of the gorge • 67 39. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: saluting the “emperor” of opera • 69 40. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: the I puritani love duet aboard the Molly Aïda • 70 41. Herzog, Fitzcarraldo: Fitzcarraldo gestures his final triumph aboard the Molly Aïda • 71 42. Opera House of the Margraves (1744–48), Bayreuth, Germany, view toward the stage • 78 43. Jean Louis Charles Garnier, Paris, Opéra Garnier (1862–75), Grand Staircase • 79 44. Opéra Garnier, Grand Foyer • 80 45. Jean Béraud, The Subscribers (An Elegant Couple Entering a Box at the Paris Opera) (1907) • 81 46. Opera fan (1797) • 82 47. Opera fan (1797), detail • 82 48. Louis-Léopold Boilly, Poor Box at the Opera (1830) • 83 49. “May I die if there isn’t Sir George!—charming man!! as I live he’s looking this way. O! the dear fellow!!” (1817) • 84 50. Béraud, The Box by the Stalls (c. 1883) • 85 51. George Cruikshank, The Opera Boxes during the Time of the Great Exhibition (1851) • 86 52. Gustave Doré, Those Who Are Carried Away, from Grotesques (1849) • 87 53. Doré, Overcome, from Grotesques • 87 54. French School, The Claque in Action...

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