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T his book is a revised and expanded version of A Biologia Militante: O Museu Nacional, especialização científica, divulgação do conhecimento e práticas científicas no Brasil (1926–1945), published in 2010 by Editora UFMG. My overriding objective in undertaking these revisions was to bring concepts, argumentation, and the narrative itself into sharper focus. New primary and secondary sources were incorporated as I refined my conceptualizations and analyses, lending greater cohesiveness and strength to the book’s overall argument. I expanded on my discussions of the historical, political, and social context, especially regarding the National Museum, the First Republic (1889–1930), and the Vargas era. I also added a timeline and a chronological table that delineates the phases of the Republic addressed in these pages— information that will be especially helpful to the non-Brazilian public. Expressing gratitude should be more than an act of mere formality, for it derives from the certainty that we are not alone. Over the years, I have relied on the immense support of many people, and my list of acknowledgments could be endless. I will begin with the public institutions in Brazil that welcomed and supported me: the Escola Estadual José Bonifácio, where I learned to read; the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG); the Universidade Estadual de Campinas; the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais. I am especially grateful to the CNPq, which funded this Preface and Acknowledgments xii  Preface and Acknowledgments research, and to the Instituto de Estudos Avançados Transdisciplinares, where I had the privilege, as a resident scholar in 2008, of spending a period of study and intellectual fellowship that was vital to this project. I received invaluable help from Vilma Carvalho de Souza, of the Biblioteca Prof. Antônio Luiz Paixão; from the whole team at the Seção de Memória e Arquivo do Museu Nacional; from Hermínia Ferreira, of the Academia Bra­ sileira de Ciências; from Juliana Amorim, of the Arquivo Múcio Leão at the Academia Brasileira de Letras; and from the staff at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural in Montevideo. My thanks go as well to my colleagues and students and to the staff at the UFMG Department of History. My participation in the Coleção Brasiliana research group, led by Eliana Dutra, greatly influenced my decision to research this particular topic—to all my brasilianos colleagues, a huge abraço. Lise Sedrez and Chris Boyer gave my work a warm welcome in the University of Arizona Press’s Latin American Landscapes series. Kristen A. Buckles, also of the University of Arizona Press, was extremely zealous in her guidance of the editorial process. The reviewers of the original manuscript offered valuable suggestions, and I am deeply indebted to them for their thoughtful readings . Diane Grosklaus Whitty translated the book, and I learned much from her about the elegance and exactitude of the English language. Her exacting, tireless, and skillful work greatly enhanced the final text. Our joint labors and discussions of details of the English version behind us, I realize I have a fine new friend and cohort. Any words of thanks to my family are far from enough: to my mother and father (for whom I’ll always be their little girl); to my brothers and sisters, nieces and nephews.To Tom, my lifelong love, who is always there for me with words of encouragement and affection. Life with my sons, Antonio and Manoel , has been a perpetual joy. They taught me to like Radiohead, Pearl Jam, and Nirvana and enjoy every last episode of Breaking Bad and Game of Thrones (guilt free), while I in turn introduced them to those inimitable old-timers: Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and David Bowie. To you, my little boys—now so grown up and independent, off conquering your own worlds—I give thanks from the bottom of my heart. ...


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